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The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The target population consists of all consumers of selected toothpaste brands in Ilorin metropolis and the selected toothpaste brands are the top ten in the market (Review Rites, 2016). These brands in order are Colgate Fluoride, Closeup, Oral-B Pro, Sensodyne, Dabur, Euthymol, Pepsodent, Macleans, Aquafresh and Mymy (Review Rite, 2016). Specifically, the population consists of household members who are consumers of these brands in Ilorin-west, Ilorin-south and Ilorin-east local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kwara state.
The total number of the study population in these local government areas according to National Population Commission report (2006) are 364,666, 208,691 and 204,310 respectively. Eligible members of the study population are males and females who are 18years and above. Taro and Yamane (1967)’s formula for sample size determination was used to determine the appropriate sample size for the study. n = N 1 + N (e)2Where: n = sample sizeN = Population 1 = ConstantE = error limit which is always given a 5% n = 777,667 1 + 777,667 (0.05)2 = 777,667 1945.17 = 399.83 ‰€ 400Hence, four hundred (400) respondents were used as the sample size of the study.
The sample member who are 18 years and above were purposively and randomly chosen. These respondents were proportionately selected from the study’s population to ensure effective representation of the study population. A Therefore, 188, 107 and 105 respondents were selected from Ilorin-west, Ilorin-south and Ilorin-east respectively. 364,666—400 = 188 777,667 208,691—400 = 107 777,667 204,310—400 = 105 777,667 Table 3.1: Proportional Representation of Respondents. Source: Field work (2017) Thus, 188, 107 and 105 copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents respectively in the LGAs with the help of research assistants. Three research assistants were engaged and supervised through coordinated efforts by the researchers.
A multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study. This is because there is a need to use more than one sampling techniques so as to ensure thoroughness. The sampling techniques are stratified, convenience and purposive sampling techniques. Ilorin metropolis was divided into Ilorin-west, Ilorin-south and Ilorin-east (Strata).
The study selected two areas from each LGA using convenience sampling technique. Tanke and Surulere areas were selected from Ilorin-south LGA, while, Taiwo road and Ogidi areas were selected from Ilorin-west LGA. Oke-Oyi and Gambari areas were selected from Ilorin-east LGA.A structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was divided into 2 sections. Section A contains items on demographic characteristics of the respondents, while section B covers items on the specific research variables which are advertising appeal, attitude, perception, family and culture. These items were measured on a 5 point Likert Scale that ranges from Strongly Disagree-1, Disagree-2, Undecided-3, Agreed-4 and Strongly Agreed-5. Frequency table and simple percentage were used to present the study’s data, while a simple regression analysis served as an analytical tool.
The analysis was run with the aid of SPSS version 18. The study’s models are as given below;Y = І0 +І1 X1 + e Where: Y = Dependent VariableІ0 = Intercept of the modelІ1 = Coefficient of Independent Variable in the modelX1 = Element of Independent Variablee = Error Term Furthermore, models were developed to achieve the following test of hypotheses.H01: Advertising does not have an impact on consumers’ attitude towards selected Toothpaste in Ilorin Metropolis Model 1: ATT =І0 +І1X1 + eWhere: ATT = Attitude (Dependent Variable)І1 = Coefficient of Independent Variable in the modelX1 = Element of Independent Variablee = Error Term H02: Advertising appeal does not have an effect on consumers’ perception towards selected Toothpaste in Ilorin Metropolis Model 2:PER =І0 +І1 AP + eWhere_PER=Perception (Dependent Variable)AP = Advertising Appeal (Independent Variable)Data Presentation and AnalysisTwo hundred and eighty-four (284) copies of the questionnaire were dully completely and returned out of four hundred (400) copies that were administered to the target respondents. This simply represents 71 per cent response rate and this response rate was considered reasonable and adequate for the study’s analysis.Table 2: Demographics of RespondentsSources: Fieldwork, 2018.Table 2 presents the demographic information of the respondents. It shows that 103(37%) of the respondents were from Ilorin-west, while 89(31%) of the respondents were from Ilorin-east.
The remaining 92 (32%) respondents were from Ilorin-south. The implication of this that Ilorin-west has the highest number of respondents and the reasons for this is that the LGA has the highest number of the population according to National Population Commission 2006 census report apart from the fact that it is the oldest LGA in the state. The table also shows that 124 of the respondents were males, while 160 of the respondents were females. The implication of these is more of female respondents use toothpaste than males and the reason for this is not far fetch. In addition, the higher number of female respondents in the study sample agreed with the record of National Population Commission of 2006 which indicated higher number females than males in the country. Furthermore, table 2 indicates the ages of the respondents and it shows that 147 (52%) of the respondents are between 18-36 years of age, 112 (39%) of the respondents are between 37-54 years of ages and the remaining 25 (9%) respondents claimed they were 55 and above years of age. This simply implies that respondents between the ages of 18 and 36 use more toothpaste than other age brackets in the study.
Analysis of Research Hypotheses Research Hypothesis IH01: Advertising does not have an impact on consumers’ attitude towards selected Toothpaste in Ilorin Metropolis. The objective of the study that is in consonance with this hypothesis sought to assess the impact of advertising on consumers’ attitude towards selected Toothpaste in Ilorin Metropolis.
Table 4.1: Model Summary. Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate1 .884 .781 .780 .02024a. Predictors: (Constant), advertising Source: Fieldwork, 2018The model summary as indicated in table 4.1 above shows that R is .884, R Square is 0.781 Adjusted R Square is 0. 781.The implication of this of this result is that 78.1% of variations in the dependent variable (consumers’ attitude) is explained by the constant variable while the remaining 21.9% is explained by other factors that are not included in the model. This means that the regression model is useful for making predictions since the value of adjusted R2 (78.0%) shows that the value (78.1%) is close 1.Table 4.2: AnovaaModel Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.1 Regression 177.222 5 177.222 1003.495 .000 Residual 49.803 282 .177 Total 227.025 284 a. Dependent Variable: consumers attitudeb. Predictors: (Constant), advertising Source: Fieldwork, 2018Table 4.2 presents the summary of the test and it shows that the value of F-cal is 1003.495 at a significance level of 0.000. Meanwhile, F-table with 95% confidence level (= 0.05) is 3.87.
Since Fcal>Ftab (1003.495> 3.87), this ordinarily suggests the rejection of the null hypothesis and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis which states that advertising has an impact on consumers’ attitude towards selected Toothpaste in Ilorin Metropolis4.3: CoefficientsaModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.604 .088 18.227 .000 Advertising .674 .021 .884 31.678 .000a. Dependent Variable: consumer’s attitudeSource: Fieldwork, 2018Table 4.3 (coefficient table) shows that advertising has an impact on consumers’ attitude since the sig. (0.000) which is less than 0.05 with (= .884, t-value = 3.1.768, pF-tab (1273.261> 3.87), this suggests the rejection of the null hypothesis and the acceptance of the alternative.4.6: CoefficientsModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .967 .096 10.117 .000 Adv. Appeal .799 .022 .905 35.683 .000a. Dependent Variable: consumers’ perceptionSource: Fieldwork, 2018.Table 4.6 (coefficient table) shows that advertising appeal has an effect on consumers’ perception since the sig. (0.000) which is lesser than 0.05 also, with (= .905, t-value = 35.683)
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