Dictatorship as a form of government is not brand-new. It was an identified institution in the republican Rome where normally the authority of federal government was vested in two presidents called Consuls.
In times of emergency situation the Romans used to designate a Director to supersede the Consuls, granting him supreme powers to meet the crisis.
However Roman dictatorship was a temporary practical to fulfill a crisis and was discarded when the crisis was previous. Additionally, the dictator was chosen by a legal procedure with the obligation to submit his use of power to the examination of the permanent authority.
The Roman dictatorship was, therefore, “a constitutional device under which the constitution was suspended throughout a grave crisis of the State.
This description of dictatorship does not apply to the modem totalitarians of former Soviet Russia, Italy, Germany and some other nations. Modem dictators are not selected by a legal procedure for a minimal amount of time in order to steer the State through a nationwide emergency.
They come into power as a result of a coup d’etat.
Force is the requirement of their political authority and they remain in power as long as force can maintain them. They are accountable to no authority except to themselves. The entire authority of the State is vested in one individual person and he personifies the State.
Some writers believe that the Russian dictatorship was the dictatorship of a celebration while in Germany and Italy it was the dictatorship of individuals. However Nazism in Germany and Fascism in Italy were likewise the rule of a celebration, though they remained all through overshadowed by a single character just as Bolshevism remained in the days of Lenin and Stalin.
Till yesterday, Khrushchev’s character loomed large on the political horizon. In truth, no government, as Maclver has actually revealed, is ever really in the hands of a single person.
If there is a single apparently supreme ruler, he inevitably rests his power on the active assistance of an associated class. He rules in its interests no less than with its cooperation. He nearly always has a council of consultants who represent that class.
Hitler and Mussolini were leaders of the Nazi and Fascist parties. They selected their ministers from the ranks of their own parties in order to pursue the ends of their respective parties. There is, accordingly, no difference between the Russian type of dictatorship and that of Central European countries.
If there was any, it was only one of degree rather than of kind. In USSR it was really a triple dictatorship—that of the Communist Party as regards the mass of citizens, that of the inner group as regards the rest of the Party, and that of the leader as regards inner group, party and the nation.