Language is a mirror which reflects the full civilization, and every state has its ain civilization. Language acquisition is inseparable from the apprehension of cultural background cognition. Cultural background cognition is really of import in linguistic communication instruction. Here I want to speak about the relationship between them and how to learn.
Language is a merchandise of society, cultural differences led to many troubles linguistic communication acquisition, if you want to larn English as good, you must hold on cultural cognition.
Language acquisition is inseparable from the apprehension of cultural background cognition. It is necessary for instructors to go through on cultural background cognition to pupils.
II. CulturalA backgroundA knowledgeA andA EnglishA instruction
1. Problems aroused by different cultural backgrounds
Cultural plays an of import function in linguistic communication. They are linked closely. Different states have different linguistic communications and civilizations. Because of cultural differences, misinterpretations may originate, although the linguistic communication used in communicating may be immaculate. The same words or looks may non intend the same thing to different peoples.
Because of cultural differences, a serious inquiry may do amusement or laughteri?›A harmless statement may do displeasure or choler. On the one manus, without linguistic communication, civilization would non be possible. On the other manus, linguistic communication is influenced and shaped by civilization ; it reflects civilization. Each civilization is alone. Learning a foreign linguistic communication means more than simply get the hanging the pronunciation, grammar, words and parlances. It means larning the ways in which their linguistic communication reflects the thoughts, imposts, and behaviour of their society, larning to understand their “ linguistic communication of the head ” .
Learning a linguistic communication, in fact, is inseparable from larning its civilization.
In China, firedrake agencies lucky, but in the aliens eyes firedrake is the incarnation of immorality. In China, we can liberate to inquire a individual ‘s age, salary, or an point ‘s monetary value, in the West, this is really impolite.
A foreign instructor see a female pupil have oning a beautiful frock, she looks really nice. The instructor said merrily, “ You look really beautiful today! ” The miss said shyly, “ No, no. This is an ordinary frock. “ The instructor congratulations a pupil ‘s English is reasonably good, ” Your English is rather fluid. “ The pupil at one time modestly said, ” No, no, my English is rather hapless. “ The two Student ‘s reply is that the instructor ne’er thought ; and the instructor does n’t understand is that evidently female pupil wears the frock which looks reasonably, the 2nd pupil ‘s English is really good, but why both of them say, “ No. ” They make the instructor feel that they do n’t hold their ain sentiments and do n’t cognize how to separate what is good, what is bad.
A pupil, he met a alien in the park, he would wish to pattern his ain spoken linguistic communication, he said, “ What ‘s your name? What are you making here? Follow me! ” The alien confused and thought that he did something wrong, and he had to be arrested and inquired.
At last, allow us see the following duologues in many text editions:
1. A: What ‘s your name?
Bacillus: My name is Xiao Hong.
A: How old are you?
Bacillus: I ‘m eleven.
2. A: Where are you traveling?
Bacillus: I ‘m traveling to the menagerie.
In China, when people meet each other, they ever say, “ Where are you traveling? ” “ Are you out? ” although people do non desire to cognize where you go. All the above duologues, although signifiers are right, they are non appropriate. So in linguistic communication instruction, we should non merely go through on cognition of linguistic communication and train scholars ‘ competency of utilizing linguistic communication, but besides heighten instruction of comparative cultural background cognition.
As we all know, “ Language is a portion of the civilization, they can non be separated each other. ” Therefore it ‘s necessary to understand the cultural background cognition. In Modern high schools, the instructors chiefly cultivate ability in hearing, speech production, reading and composing, the ultimate purpose is to develop pupils to utilize English communicate with each other, the four facets are inseparable from the cultural background cognition. “ Without linguistic communication, civilization would non be possible. Language is influenced and shaped by civilization ; it reflects civilization. ”
Some people say that “ listening ” is an of import facet of communicative competency. Listening ability, reading ability, the hearer ‘s linguistic communication accomplishment, cultural background cognition, believing accomplishment are closely related. If the linguistic communication capableness of the hearer is comparatively strong, but he knows a small cultural background cognition, it is hard to understand the significance of the hearing stuffs, even he makes a error in understanding. From this, civilization plays an of import function in English instruction. Speaking is non simply concerned with pronunciation and modulation. Students can merely better their unwritten English and make the purpose of communicating by agencies of tremendous reading, get the hanging rich linguistic communication stuff and familiarity of western civilization. Therefore, in unwritten preparation, instructors should put emphasis on factualness of linguistic communication and follow some stuff nearing to day-to-day life, such as day-to-day duologues with tape, magazines, newspapers and study etc. , because the stuff is from existent life, and it helps pupils to be good acquainted with standard pronunciation and modulation, to talk English appropriate to the juncture, to understand western manner of life and imposts etc. Otherwise, misconstruing and displeasure are necessarily aroused. In English, there are so many euphemisms that sometimes it ‘s difficult to cognize the other 1 ‘s existent temper. So we should pay attending to our reply.
Reading English articles requires a certain linguistic communication footing, but the competency of reading comprehension is non wholly related to one ‘s linguistic communication degree. Knowledge of cultural background is besides of import. You can think the significance harmonizing to available linguistic communication stuff, cultural background and logical logical thinking. However, when we read English articles, differences between Chinese and western civilizations frequently bring us many troubles.
Peoples ever recognize which sort of articles wrote by aliens, which sort of articles wrote by Chinese. There are three chief grounds, foremost, the authors ‘ English degree is non so high, 2nd, Chinese and western have different thought ways, 3rd, the articles ‘ manner is really different because of different cultural. These three facets show cultural play an of import function in composing. In authorship, we frequently use some qualifiers to heighten the colour of the article, and the articles are so graphic. Western thinks the magpie is non a mark of good fortune, but Chinese think magpie is a symbol of jubilation. Peoples ever say: “ Magpie call, something good will be happened. ” Therefore, cultural difference is the cardinal that makes the articles be natural or non. If you want to accomplish the degree of authorship of aliens, you must hold on cultural background cognition. Every facets of linguistic communication ever reflects cultural, It means linguistic communication acquisition and cultural background cognition larning are non separated. The content of cultural is really abundant, in the instruction procedure, the instructors shall explicate cultural background cognition in any clip, make the pupils take linguistic communication and cultural cognition into listening, speech production, reading, composing accomplishments, so as to the pupils can easy pass on with aliens and read foreign stuffs.
Translating and composing ca n’t be separated from cultural background cognition. We shall take the word “ Canis familiaris ” as an illustration. To English-speaking people and Chinese, there are really different significances. “ Lai Pi Gou ” and “ Sang JiaZhiquan ” are frequently used to depict gross outing people. But dog in English, particularly in Proverbs, is a commendatory term. If we translate dog into Chinese “ Canis familiaris ” without exclusion, we may do gags. For illustration:
1. Every Canis familiaris has his twenty-four hours.
2. You are, so, a lucky dog. ,
3. Last dark my male parent came home exhausted.
Because some scholars are non good cognizant of the cultural differences, they take it for granted that the three sentences should be translated into the followers:
In fact, the right interlingual renditions are as follows:
It is clear that cultural background cognition is necessary in linguistic communication instruction. Teachers should assist pupils to work out the troubles in linguistic communication every bit good as in civilization. Therefore, instructors should farther better your quality of learning. Particularly you should learn cultural background cognition every bit possible as you can.
First instructors should take proper learning stuff. Particularly the foreign stuff should be used, merely like duologues, following, instructors should explicate cultural factors involved in the stuff with intent. There is an illustration like this:
Helen: Hello, Susan, where are you traveling?
Susan: I ‘m traveling to acquire a magazine and some cocoa.
Helen: Let ‘s travel to that newsdealer in the corner. I want some coffin nails.
Susan: I want to travel the one down the route. I ‘ve got to direct off this package and there is a post-office in that one.
It tells us in England some newsagentaˆsthose stores non merely sell Sweets and coffin nails, but besides put in station office where people can direct off letters and packages. But in China, there are non such stores. If instructors do n’t explicate for this, pupils may experience puzzled.
Second, Teachers should take cultural background cognition and English instruction into four facets of linguistic communication acquisition, they are listening, speech production, reading, composing accomplishments. Teachers should give some information about cultural background cognition in listening class. A batch of pupils ‘ listening degree is non so high, non merely because they do non hold on English words and their grammatical construct is ill-defined but besides they do n’t hold cultural background cognition. There are two gags here:
a‘ A: Where are you from? Bacillus: I ‘ll inquire her ( Alaska ) A: Why do you inquire her?
a‘?A: Where are you from? Bacilluss: How are you? ( Hawaii )
In the two gags, to A, B do non understand inquiry, but if you know the United States has two provinces: Alaska and Hawaii, so A will non do a error. From this, in listening class, instructors give cultural background cognition to pupils, non merely heighten the hearing accomplishment of them, but besides enable pupils to obtain cognition. In reading class, instructors should explicate cultural background cognition. If you want to read, you must hold English basic. Cultural background cognition is so of import.
Third, in the schoolroom, instructor should pay attending to proper linguistic communication signifiers every bit good as suited usage of linguistic communication. One manner of schoolroom instruction is to inquire pupils to do similar duologues to the text. A pupil necessarily needs to play a function and carry on a conversation harmonizing to a certain function. Teacher should pull the pupil ‘s attending to his function and point out his looks which are improper for his character or the juncture. Furthermore, remind pupils to pay attending to inside informations such as pronunciation, modulation, visage diction, gesture etc.
Fourthly, instructors should utilize good native English videotapes and movies in instruction, and so form treatments. Teachers should utilize images, films in instruction, pupils can easy understand some cultural background cognition, and Western societal and cultural factors.
Fifthly, encourage pupils to pass on with native English talkers. But so far, we have n’t carried out such activities plenty. In contact with native talkers, in such relaxed conversations, pupils can larn much cognition, which can non be learned in the schoolroom.
Sixthly, keep some talks about civilizations and imposts, comparing Chinese civilization with western civilization.
In instruction, instructors should pay attending to cultural differences and analyze these differences. As English instructors, we should non merely assist pupils to larn a foreign linguistic communication, but besides to larn societal and cultural background cognition. Merely so, pupils can widen their cognition and therefore farther learn English good.
Language is a mirror which reflects the full civilization, and every state has its ain civilization. Language acquisition is inseparable from the apprehension of cultural background cognition. Language is a merchandise of society, cultural differences led to many troubles linguistic communication acquisition, if you want to larn English as good, you must hold on cultural cognition. It is necessary for instructors to go through on cultural background cognition to pupils. In short, there are great differences between Chinese and Western civilization, linguistic communication and civilization are inseparable, if you do non understand the foreign linguistic communication and cultural background, you can non right understand and utilize linguistic communication. Not merely enable pupils to get the hang the basic cognition, but should besides beef up cultural Background Knowledge in instruction, so that they learn and come from different societal background, cultural patterns, political systems of the people live in harmoniousness, so as to truly make in English instruction intents