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Creating Software For Oral Examination Timetabling Computer Science Essay

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 30 (7343 words)
Categories: Computer, Essay, Examination, Examination Time, Science, Software, Time
Downloads: 37
Views: 1

This undertaking is as the name suggests is based on a university unwritten scrutiny system. In a university where there are 100s and 1000s of pupils analyzing, it is really hard and feverish to fix their unwritten scrutiny day of the months maintaining in head about the assorted constrain like instructor ‘s timings, university operation timings, pupil handiness, day of the months of exam handiness and legion others. Keeping all these in head 1 has to develop a agenda manually, which is quit tough and clip devouring undertaking.

But if a package is developed which will take all the constrains and will bring forth the proper unwritten scrutiny clip table so that would do life easier and would salvage great sum of clip.

Here this study is seeking to work out the same job of university unwritten scrutiny by making package. This package takes all the different restraint needed and will bring forth a clip tabular array which will fulfill the demand of the university.

The range of this undertaking is really vided and bright as this can be used in any university, each and every university have the job of screening out the university scrutiny which can be fulfilled by this package.

To sum it up I would merely state that I have truly put in a great trade of attempt in this undertaking and able to carry through most of them and non to the full merely because of the clip constrains. But, still the portion I have done I did do sure that it gives the best all the clip. This undertaking still has some work to make, which can do it more various and bigger in sense of use, so I do urge some future work on this undertaking.

Introduction

This study was requested by Dr Wilton Bailey supervisor this undertaking. The study concerns the research and development of university unwritten scrutiny system. The chief purpose was to develop a robust and to the full efficient university unwritten scrutinies system for the decision maker.

This subdivision of the study will give item cognition of the whole system. In order to construct the package we foremost needed to understand to the full the working of the whole system in item. Like, what are the cardinal contents of the system what are the different restraints given etc.

This undertaking even demanded a storage infinite where all the item and the the scrutiny timetable should be stored so there are chief two organic structure they are as follows, of which we will speak in item separately.

Gui portion ( VISUAL STUDIO.NET )

Database portion ( SQL SERVER )

VISUAL STUDIO.NET

Gui portion: – We have used ocular studio.net as the graphical user interface, as it is easy to utilize, codification and user friendly. here in this study we will discourse something about the working of ocular studio.net

It is a platform that provides tools and engineerings you need to construct Networked Applications every bit good as Distributed Web Services and Web Applications. This provides the necessary compile clip and run-time foundation to construct and run any linguistic communication that conforms to the Common Language Specification ( CLS ) .The chief two constituents of.Net Model are Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) and.Net Framework Class Library ( FCL ) .

Common linguistic communication runtime: –

The chief map of Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) is to change over the Managed Code into native codification and so put to death the Program. The Managed Code compiled merely when it needed, that is it converts the appropriate instructions when each map is called. The Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) ‘s Just In Time ( JIT ) digest converts Intermediate Language ( MSIL ) to native codification on demand at application tally clip.

During the executing of the plan, the Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) manages memory, Thread executing, Garbage Collection ( GC ) , Exception Handling, Common Type System ( CTS ) , code safety confirmations, and other system services.

The user written Source Code are compiled utilizing the.Net compiler and are fed into microsoft Intermediate Language ( MSIL ) . Microsoft Intermediate Language ( MSIL ) is a CPU independent set of instructions that can be converted to the native codification. Metadata besides created in the class of compile clip with Microsoft Intermediate Language ( MSIL ) and stored it with the compiled codification. Metadata is wholly self-describing. Metadata it contains information about the members, types, mentions and all the other informations that the Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) needs for executing.

During the runtime when the Common Language Runtime ( CLR ) ‘s is put to deathing the metadata Just In Time ( JIT ) compiler converts the Microsoft Intermediate Language ( MSIL ) codification into native codification to the Operating System. Which in bend eventually produces the end product.

.Net Framework Class Library ( FCL )

The.Net Framework category library ( FCL ) provides the nucleus functionality of.Net Framework architecture. The.Net Framework Class Library ( FCL ) includes a immense aggregation of reclaimable categories, interfaces, and value types that expedite and optimise the development procedure and supply entree to system functionality.

The.Net Framework category library ( FCL ) organized in a hierarchal tree construction and it is divided into Namespaces. Namespaces is a logical grouping of types for the intent of designation. Framework category library ( FCL ) provides the consistent base types that are used across all.NET enabled linguistic communications. The Classes are accessed by namespaces, which reside within Assemblies. The System Namespace is the root for types in the.NET Framework.

The.Net Framework category library ( FCL ) categories are managed categories that provide entree to System Services. The.Net Framework category library ( FCL ) categories are object oriented and easy to utilize in plan developments. Furthermore, third-party constituents can incorporate with the categories in the.NET Model

Declaring Variables: –

Variables are named storage countries inside computing machine memory where a plan topographic points data during processing. A plan sets aside these storage countries by declaring variables, that is, by delegating them a name and bespeaking what types of informations will busy these countries during processing.

Within a Ocular Basic plan, variables are declared utilizing the Dim statement whose general format is shown below

Dim variables as type

where type is one of the informations types allowable in Visual Basic and variable is a programmer-supplied name for the storage country.

Naming Variables

Programmer-supplied variable names are besides referred to as identifiers, and they must conform to Visual Basic calling conventionsand a variable name must

Variable names are non instance sensitive, so the name expressed in upper-case characters refers to the same storage country as a name expressed in lower-case characters and nevertheless, for programming consistence, and to avoid unneeded mistakes, it is best to show a variable as it is originally declared. Therefore, valid variable names include Y, My_Data, MyData, My_Data_Veta, and other names utilizing meaningful and simple identifiers.

VB.NET Access Specifies

Access Specifies describes as the range of handiness of an Object and its members. We can command the range of the member object of a category utilizing entree specifiers. We are utilizing entree specifiers for supplying security of our applications.

Ocular Basic.Net provide five entree specifiers, they are as follows:

Public, Private, Protected, Friend and ProtectedFriend.

Populace:

Public is the most common entree specifier. It can be entree from anyplace, hat means there is no limitation on accessability. The range of the handiness is inside category besides in outside the category.

Private:

The range of the handiness is limited merely inside the categories in which they are decleared. The Private members can non be accessed outside the category and it is the least permissive entree degree.

Protected:

The range of handiness is limited within the category and the categories derived ( Inherited ) from this category.

Friend:

The Friend entree specifier can entree within the plan that contain its declarations and besides entree within the same assembly degree. You can utilize friend alternatively of Dim keyword.

ProtectedFriend:

ProtectedFriend is same entree lebels of both Protected and Friend. It can entree anyplace in the same assebly and in the same category besides the categories inherited from the same category

Data Types

When declaring a variable an indicant can be given about what type of informations will be stored and there are many informations types allowable under Visual Basic.In computing machine processing, the followers are common for declaring the usual types of informations involved:

Short. A non-decimal ( whole ) figure with a value in the scope of the -32,768 to +32,767.

A

Integer. A non-decimal ( whole ) figure with a value in the scope of the -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647.

A

Long. A non-decimal ( whole ) figure with a value in the scope of the -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to +9,223,372,036,854,775,807.

A

Single. A floating-point ( denary ) positive or negative figure with a value in the scope of up to the 3.402823E38 ( scientific notation ) .

A

Double A floating-point ( denary ) positive or negative figure with a value in the scope of up to the 1.79769313486232E308.

A

Decimal. A denary figure with a value in the scope of up to +79,228,162,514,264,337,593,950,335. without denary preciseness and up to the +7.9228162514264337593543950335 with 28 topographic points of denary preciseness.

A

Stringing. Any figure of particular, numerical, alphabetic and particular characters.

A

Date Dates in the scope between January 1, 0001 to December 31, 9999 and times in the scope between 0:00:00 to the 23:59:59.

A

Boolean. The value of True or False.

Delegating Valuess to Variables

With the Visual Basic assignment statement, variables are assigned values whose general format is shown below.

Variable declarations merely put aside memory storage countries as impermanent containers of informations — impermanent because they are no longer accessible one time the plan terminals and during processing, of class, these variables are occupied by informations values.

Data for processing can come from many different beginnings and they can come from outside the plan — from external files and databases ; they can come from inside the plan by explicitly puting a value for a variable or by hive awaying treating consequences of pull stringsing other variables. In any instance, variables take on values by delegating values to them.

Variable = value

Stringing Operators

A

Ocular Basic supplies the concatenation operator ( & amp ; ) to set together single informations strings to make a longer twine of those combinations and the Like operator expressions for fiting characters in a twine.

Operator

Use

& A ; or +

Concatenation. Appends the twine value looking on the right of the operator to the threading value on the left of the operator.

Like

Determines whether a twine matches a given form.

A

Arithmetical Operators

Much of information processing involves using arithmetic to numeral informations types and values are added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided to bring forth consequences, either concluding consequences or intermediate values that are involved in farther arithmetic operations. For these intents Visual Basic supplies a set of seven arithmetic operators shown in the undermentioned tabular array.

Operator

Use

+

Addition. Adds the values looking on the two sides of the operator.

Subtraction. Subtracts the value on the right of the operator from the value on the left of the operator.

*

Generation. Multiplies the values looking on the two sides of the operator.

/

Division. Divides the value on the left of the operator ( dividend ) by the value on the right of the operator ( factor ) .

Integer Division. Divides the value on the left of the operator by the value on the right of the operator, giving an Integer consequence.

Mod

Modulo Division. Returns the balance of the division of the value on the left of the operator by the value on the right of the operator.

^

Exponentiation. Raises the value on the left of the operator to the power on the right of the operator.

Relational Operators

Ocular Basic supplies a set of six relational operators to compare the magnitudes of two informations values and comparings can be made with numeral or threading values, with a Boolean value returned from the comparing.

The following tabular array summarizes these relational operators

A

Operator

Use

=

Trials whether two values are equal.

& lt ; & gt ; A

Trials whether two values are non equal.

& lt ; A

Trials whether the first value is less than the 2nd value.

& gt ; A

Trials whether the first value is greater than the 2nd value.

& lt ; =

Trials whether the first value is less than or equal to the 2nd value.

& gt ; =

Trials whether the first value is greater than or equal to the 2nd value.

Mathematical Functions

In the undermentioned tabular array, popular mathematical maps are summarized.Also note that certain maps do non necessitate the Math. prefix.

Function

Use

Math.Abs ( )

Returns the absolute value.

Math.Abs ( -10 ) returns 10.

Fix ( )

Returns the integer part of a figure.

Fix ( 5.3333 ) returns 5.

Math.Max ( )

Returns the larger of two Numberss.

Math.Max ( 5,7 ) returns 7.

Math.Min ( )

Tax returns the smaller of two Numberss.

Math.Min ( 5,7 ) returns 5.

Math.Pow ( )

Returns a figure raised to a power.

Math.Pow ( 12,2 ) returns 144.

Math.Sqrt ( )

Returns the square root of a positive figure.

Math.Sqrt ( 144 ) returns 12.

Date and Time Properties

When working with day of the months and times it is frequently necessary to cognize the current day of the month and/or clip and these values can be extracted from the waiter ‘s system clock through the belongingss shown in the tabular array below. These belongingss are used in several of the clip and day of the month maps described below.

Property

Value

DateString

Tax returns a String value stand foring the current day of the month.

A A A DateString = 12-21-2006

Now

Tax returns a Date value incorporating the current day of the month and clip.

A A A Now = 12/21/2006 5:20:00 Americiums

TimeOfDay

Tax returns a Date value incorporating the current clip of twenty-four hours ( the day of the month is set to 1/1/0001 ) .

A A A TimeOfDay = 1/1/0001 5:20:00 Americiums

Timer

Tax returns a Double value stand foring the figure of seconds elapsed since midnight.

A A A Timer = 19200.1183166

TimeString

Tax returns a String value stand foring the current clip of twenty-four hours.

A A A TimeString = 05:20:00

Today

Tax returns or sets a Date value incorporating the current day of the month.

A A A Today = 12/21/2006 12:00:00 Americiums

Date Functions

In the undermentioned tabular array, day of the month maps are summarized with maps described more to the full below.

Function

Use

DateAdd ( )

Tax returns a Date value incorporating a day of the month and clip value to which a specified clip interval has been added.

DatePart ( )

Returns an Integer value incorporating the specified constituent of a given Date value.

DateSerial ( )

Tax returns a Date value stand foring a specified twelvemonth, month, and twenty-four hours, with the clip information set to midnight ( 00:00:00 ) .

DateValue ( )

Tax returns a Date value incorporating the day of the month information represented by a twine, with the clip information set to midnight ( 00:00:00 ) .

Day ( )

Returns an Integer value from 1 through 31 stand foring the twenty-four hours of the month.

WeekDay ( )

Returns an Integer value incorporating a figure stand foring the twenty-four hours of the hebdomad.

A

A

Time Functions

Time maps are summarized in the undermentioned tabular array with maps described more to the full below and several of the day of the month maps can be applied to clip measurings.

Function

Use

DateAdd ( )

Tax returns a Date value incorporating a day of the month and clip value to which a specified clip interval has been added.

Hour ( )

Returns an Integer value from 0 through 23 stand foring the hr of the twenty-four hours.

Minute ( )

Returns an Integer value from 0 through 59 stand foring the minute of the hr.

Second ( )

Returns an Integer value from 0 through 59 stand foring the second of the minute.

TimeSerial ( )

Tax returns a Date value stand foring a specified hr, minute, and 2nd, with the day of the month information set relation to January 1 of the twelvemonth 1.

TimeValue ( )

Tax returns a Date value incorporating the clip information represented by a twine, with the day of the month information set to January 1 of the twelvemonth 1.

A

Formating Dates and Timess

The FormatDateTime ( ) map returns a string look and stand foring a date/time value. Its general format is as follows:

A FormatDateTime ( value [ , DateFormat ] )

where value is a clip or day of the month value and format is one of the undermentioned values: GeneralDate, LongDate, ShortDate, LongTime, or ShortTime.

Format

End product

FormatDateTime ( Now )

12/21/2006 5:49:47 Americiums

FormatDateTime ( Today )

12/21/2006

FormatDateTime ( TimeOfDay )

5:49:47 AM

FormatDateTime ( Today, DateFormat.LongDate )

Thursday, December 21, 2006

FormatDateTime ( Today, DateFormat.ShortDate )

12/21/2006

FormatDateTime ( Now, DateFormat.LongTime )

5:49:47 AM

FormatDateTime ( TimeOfDay, DateFormat.ShortTime )

05:49

Conditional Structures & A ; Control Flow

IFaˆ¦ELSE in VB.NET

The conditional statement IF ELSE, is usage for analyzing the conditions that we provided, and doing determination based on that status. The conditional statement analyzing the information utilizing comparing operators every bit good as logical operators.

If [ your status here ]

Your codification here

Else

Your codification Here

End If

If the contition is TRUE so the control goes to between IF and Else block, that is the plan will put to death the codification between IF and ELSE statements.

If the contition is FLASE so the control goes to between ELSE and END IF block, that is the plan will put to death the codification between ELSE and END IF statements.

If you want o cheque more than one status at the same clip, you can utilize ElseIf.

If [ your status here ]

Your codification here

ElseIf [ your status here ]

Your codification here

ElseIf [ your status here ]

Your codification here

Else

Your codification Here

End If

FOR NEXT cringle

Whenever you face a state of affairs in programming to reiterate a undertaking for several times ( more than one times ) or you have to reiterate a undertaking boulder clay you reach a condtition, in these state of affairss you can utilize loop statements to accomplish your coveted consequences.

FOR NEXT Loop, FOR EACH Loop, WHILE Loop and DO WHILE Loop are the Commonly used cringles in Ocular Basic.NET.

The FOR NEXT Loop, execute the cringle organic structure ( the beginning codification within For..Next codification block ) to a fixed figure of times.

For var= [ startValue ] To [ endValue ] [ Step ]

[ loopBody ]

Following [ volt-ampere ]

volt-ampere: The counter for the cringle to reiterate the stairss.

starValue: The get downing value assign to counter variable.

endValue: When the counter variable range terminal value the Loop will halt.

loopBody: The beginning codification between cringle organic structure

While aˆ¦End While cringle

Whenever you face a state of affairs in programming to reiterate a undertaking for several times ( more than one times ) or you have to reiterate a undertaking boulder clay you reach a status, in these state of affairss you can utilize loop statements to accomplish your coveted consequences.

FOR NEXT Loop, FOR EACH Loop, WHILE Loop and DO WHILE Loop are the Commonly used cringles in Ocular Basic.NET.

While..End While

While.. End While Loop execute the codification organic structure ( the beginning codification within While and End while statements ) until it meets the specified status.

While [ status ]

[ cringle organic structure ]

End While

Do aˆ¦While Loop

The Do cringle can be used to put to death a fixed block of statements indefinite figure of times. The Do loop keeps put to deathing it ‘s statements while or until the status is true. Two keywords, while and until can be used with the bash cringle. The Do cringle besides supports an Exit Do statement which makes the cringle to go out at any minute. The sentence structure of Do loop looks like this:

Make [ { while | Until } status ]

[ statements ]

[ Exit Do ]

[ statements ]

Cringle

Methods

Methods

A Method is a process built into the class.A They are a series of statements that are executed when called. MethodsA allow us to handleA codification in a simple and organized manner. There are two types of methods in VB.NET: those that return a value ( Functions ) and those that do non return a value ( Sub Procedures ) . BothA of themA are discussed below.

Bomber Procedures

Sub processs areA methodsA which do non return a value. Each clip when the Sub process is called the statements within it are executed until the duplicate End Sub is encountered.A Sub Main ( ) , A the get downing point of the plan itself is a sub process. When the application starts executing, A control is transferred to Main Sub process automatically which is called by default.

Functions

Function is a method which returns a value. Functions are used to measure informations, make computations or to transform informations. Declaring a Function is similar to declaring a Sub procedure.A Functions are declared with the Function keyword. The undermentioned codification is an illustration on Functions:

Method Variables

Variables declared within methods are called method variables. They have method range which means that one time the method is executed they are destroyed and their memory is reclaimed. For illustration, from the above codification ( Functions ) the Add method declared two whole number variables i, J. Those two variables are accessible merely within the method and non from outside the method.

Exception Managing

Exceptions

Exceptions are the happening of some status that changes the normal flow of executing. For ex: you programme run out of memory, file does non be in the given way, web connexions are dropped etc. More specifically for better apprehension, we can state it as Runtime Mistakes.

In.NET linguistic communications, Structured Exceptions handling is a cardinal portion of Common Language Runtime. It has a figure of advantages over the On Error statements provided in old versions of Visual Basic. All exclusions in the Common Language Runtime are derived from a individual base category, besides you can make your ain usage Exception classes. You can make an Exception category that inherits from Exception category.

You can manage Exceptions utilizing Try..Catch statement.

Try

Code

Exit from Try

Catch [ Exceptions [ As Type ] ]

Code-if the expection occurred this codification will put to death

Exit from Catch

Finally

The codification in the eventually block will put to death even if there is no Exceptions. That means if you write a eventually block, the codification should put to death after the executing of attempt block or gimmick block.

Try

codification

issue from Try

Catch [ Exception [ As Type ] ]

codification – if the exclusion occurred this codification will put to death

issue Catch

Finally

codification – this codification should put to death, if exclusion occurred or non

SQL SERVER

COMPARISON BETWEEN DATABASES

In this undertaking there was a demand of informations base to hive away all the informations of pupils, instructors, sections, day of the months and clip etc. so on the undermentioned findings we decided to utilize sql waiter as our database

We were confused between two option for database package they were MS Access and SQL Server. Now “ Microsoft Access seems to hold some great characteristics, why would I want to utilize any other database bundle. We were trained in both sort of databases, so baffled which 1 should be the best for us. We started doing a comparing between those two database

MS Access

Access is more suitable for desktop usage with a little figure of users accessing it at the same time. One ground you might take to utilize Access over SQL Server is for compatibility/sharing. You might necessitate to e-mail person a transcript of your database. Peoples are more likely to hold Access on their desktop computing machine than SQL Server. You ‘ll by and large merely happen SQL Server on developers ‘ computers/servers or on production waiter machines.

Another ground you might utilize Access alternatively of SQL Server is money. You might already hold installed Access as portion of the Microsoft Office suite. Buying SQL Server would be an excess disbursal that may non be necessary – depending on your state of affairs. SQL Server can besides be rather expensive.

MS SQL Server

SQL Server is a more robust database direction system. SQL Server was designed to hold many 100s, or even 1000s of users accessing it at any point in clip. Microsoft Access on the other manus, does n’t manage this type of burden really good. SQlA ServerA is a waiter based database. Access is used as local database.

This makes SQL Server absolutely suited for database driven web sites. You should ne’er utilize Access for a database driven website – unless it has a really little sum of traffic ( like you and a few of your friends ) . Even so, you may happen yourself acquiring mistakes due to multiple users seeking to entree the database at the same clip.

SQL Server besides contains some advanced database disposal tools that enable organisations to schedule undertakings, receive qui vives, optimize databases, configure security accounts/roles, reassign informations between other disparate beginnings, and much more

Finally the victor is SQL Server

After doing a item comparing between these two databases, I preferred SQL over MS Access. Keeping in head the security, the big size of the database, and the hardiness this package demands harmonizing to me SQL Server is the best suited.

In SQL Server a batch of the processing can take topographic point on theA computerA ( waiter ) running the back terminal. In SQL Server the choice logic can run on the waiter computing machine and merely the 1 selected record has to go across theA networkA back to the client computing machine.

Here in this study we will discourse some basic theory of SQL Server usage in the undertaking.

A database is a aggregation of informations. That may sound excessively simplistic but it reasonably much sums up what any database is.

A database could be every bit simple as a text file with a list of names. Or it could be every bit complex as a big, relational database direction system, complete with in-built tools to assist you maintain the information.

A Database Management System ( DBMS ) , is a package plan that enables the creative activity and direction of databases. By and large, these databases will be more complex than the text file/spreadsheet illustration in the old lesson. In fact, most of today ‘s database systems are referred to as a Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ) , because of their ability to hive away related informations across multiple tabular arraies.

Some of the more popular relational database direction systems include:

Microsoft Access

Filemaker

Microsoft SQL Server

MySQL

Prophet

MS SQL Server 2008

Introduction

Microsoft SQL Server is a Relational Database Management System ( RDBMS ) designed to run on platforms runing from laptops to big multiprocessor waiters. SQL Server is normally used as the backend system for web sites and corporate CRMs and can back up 1000s of concurrent users.

SQL Server comes with a figure of tools to assist you with your database disposal and programming undertakings.

SQL Server Management Studio ( SSMS )

SQL Server Management Studio ( SSMS ) is the chief disposal console for SQL Server.

SSMS enables you to make database objects ( such as databases, tabular arraies, positions etc ) , view the informations within your database ; you can configure user histories, reassign informations between databases, and more.

Here ‘s what SQL Server Management Studio looks like when you foremost open it up:

Screenshot of SQL Server Management Studio

The left window glass contains the Object Explorer. The Object Explorer provides pilotage to databases, server objects ( such as triggers ) , log files, and more.

The right window glass allows you to compose questions against the database and position the consequences. In this screenshot I have opened a clean question by snaping the “ New Query ” button. You can besides convey up other Windowss, such as the Properties window.

Note that I have minimized the size of the window for this screenshot. Once maximized, you have much more room to play with. You can utilize SQL Server Management Studio to make as many databases as you like. You can besides link to as many databases on as many waiters as you like.

Most of the undertakings performed with SQL Server Management Studio are initiated either from the top bill of fare, or by right-clicking on an icon/object.

SQL Server – Make a Database

One of the first things we should look at with SQL Server/Management Studio is how to make a database. After all, most of the undertakings you perform with SQL Server will germinate around one or more databases.

The undermentioned stairss show how to make a database in SQL Server utilizing SQL Server Management Studio.

Right chink on the “ Databases ” icon on the left side panel and choose “ New Database… ” :

Making a new database in SQL Server – measure 1

Name your database as u like and so snap “ All right ” :

Making a new database in SQL Server – measure 2

SQL Server – Make a Table

This lesson demonstrates how to make a tabular array in a SQL Server database utilizing SQL Server Management Studio ( SSMS ) .

Guaranting you have the right database expanded, right chink on the “ Tables ” icon and choose “ New Table… ” :

While you have this screen unfastened, do the followers:

Using the values in the screenshot, finish the inside informations in the “ Column Name ” column, the “ Data Type ” column, “ Length ” column, and “ Allow Nulls ” column.

Make the IndividualId column an “ individuality column ” , by puting “ Is Identity ” to “ Yes ” . This column is traveling to be an auto-number column – it will incorporate an incrementing figure for each record that is created.

Put the “ Default Value ” of the DateCreated column to ( getdate ( ) ) . ( This will automatically infix the current day of the month into that field for each new record ) .

Making a tabular array in SQL Server – measure 1

Making a tabular array in SQL Server – measure 2

What we are making at this phase, is making the column names, stipulating the type of informations that can be entered into them, and puting default values. Restricting the information type for each column is really of import and helps keep informations unity. For illustration, it can forestall us from by chance come ining an electronic mail reference into a field for hive awaying the current day of the month.

Salvage the tabular array by choosing File & gt ; Save Table_1:

When prompted, call your tabular array:

Making a tabular array in SQL Server – measure 3

SQL Server – Adding Data

In the old lesson, we created a new tabular array in our database. We now have a database tabular array, columns and all, but with no information.

Editing tabular arraies rows

We can utilize the “ Edit Top 200 Rows ” option to add informations to our tabular array.

To utilize this option, right chink on the tabular array you wish to open, and choose “ Edit Top 200 Rows ” :

Screenshot of redacting the top 200 rows of a tabular array in SSMS

SQL Server – SQL Scripts

In the old lesson, we added informations to our database tabular array utilizing the “ Edit Top 200 Rows ” option. In this lesson, we will look at how to compose SQL books to update and run questions against our database.

Make a New Query

Before we generate our SQL book, we need someplace to come in it into. This portion is easy. Just snap the “ New Query ” button:

Screenshot of the New Query button

A space, white sheet should now look on the right window glass.

Write/Run Your SQL Script

You are now ready to compose SQL questions against your database. You can utilize this interface to make database objects ( such as databases, tabular arraies, positions etc ) , insert information into a database tabular array, select informations, update informations, delete informations.

To run an SQL question:

Type your question into the workspace on the right window glass

Click “ Execute ” ( you can besides press F5 )

The undermentioned screenshot shows an illustration of utilizing a SQL ‘select ‘ statement to choose informations from a database:

Screenshot SQL question consequences

As you can see, the consequences of the question are displayed in the bottom window glass.

As a cutoff, you can snap on a tabular array in the left window glass and drag it to the right window glass when constructing your question. This can salvage you clip – particularly if you have many tabular arraies to add to your question.

The above ‘select ‘ statement is an illustration of a SQL question.

SQL Server – Question Interior designer

In this lesson, we will look at how to compose SQL books utilizing the graphical question interior decorator.

About The Query Designer

The graphical question interior decorator is a graphical user interface that allows you to construct questions to run against your SQL Server database. This can be peculiarly utile when edifice complex questions that involves many tabular arraies, positions etc.

The question interior decorator can besides be good for those who are larning how to compose SQL. This is because you do n’t necessitate to retrieve the SQL sentence structure in order to compose questions against your database – the question interior decorator generates the SQL for you.

Constructing Your Questions

To construct a question with the question interior decorator:

Select Query & gt ; Design Query in Editor… :

Accessing the Query Designer

Add the tabular arraies you want to run the question against. In this instance, we merely have one tabular array to take from.

Accessing the Query Designer

Choose the column/s you want to expose in your question:

Question Interior designer

Click “ OK ”

Once you ‘ve clicked OK, you will happen the question has been added to your workspace. You can so run it as you would any other question.

SQL Server – User Logins

SQL Server allows for the creative activity of user logins. Each person who needs entree to SQL Server can be given their ain user history.

When the decision maker configures these user logins, he/she can delegate them to any figure of functions and scheme, depending on the entree that the person is entitled to. In this lesson, we will walk through the stairss in making a user login.

To Make a New User Login

Using SQL Server Management Studio, expand the “ Security ” option and right chink on “ Logins ”

Click on “ New Login ”

Making a new login in SQL Server

Complete the login belongingss in the “ General ” check by supplying a name for the login, taking the Authentication method ( supplying a watchword if you choose “ SQL Server hallmark ” ) , and choosing the database to utilize as a default.

Distributed Questions

Once you have configured your linked waiter, you will be able to run questions etc against it. When you run a question against a linked waiter, it is referred to as a distributed question.

When you execute a distributed question against a linked waiter, you must include a to the full qualified, four-part tabular array name for each information beginning to question. This four-part name should be in the signifier linked_server_name.catalog.schema.object_name.

Structured Query Language ( SQL )

_________________________________________________________________________

About SQL

SQL stands for Structured Query Language.

SQL is a linguistic communication that enables you to work with a database. Using SQL, you can infix records, update records, and delete records. You can besides make new database objects such as databases and tabular arraies. And you can drop ( delete ) them.

More advanced characteristics include making stored processs ( self contained books ) , positions ( pre-made questions ) , and puting permissions on database objects ( such as tabular arraies, stored processs, and positions ) .

Although SQL is an ANSI ( American National Standards Institute ) criterion, there are many different versions of SQL. Different database sellers have their ain fluctuations of the linguistic communication.

Having said this, to be in conformity with the ANSI criterion, they need to at least back up the major bids such as DELETE, INSERT, UPDATE, WHERE etc. Besides, you will happen that many sellers have their ain extensions to the linguistic communication – characteristics that are merely supported in their database system.

Furthermore, transact-SQL is an extension to the ANSI criterion and provides excess functionality.

Using SQL

If you need to construct a web site with a database supplying the content, you will by and large necessitate the followers:

A server side scripting linguistic communication ( i.e. ColdFusion, PHP, ASP/.NET )

A database question linguistic communication ( i.e. SQL )

A client side markup linguistic communication and manner sheets ( i.e. HTML/CSS )

Although SQL can be rather involved, you can accomplish a batch with a smattering of SQL statements. When utilizing SQL on a web site, you will frequently happen yourself either choosing a record, infixing a record, updating a record, or canceling a record. Fortunately, SQL has bids for executing each of these actions.

SQL Syntax

The SQL sentence structure is rather an easy one to hold on. Most of the actions you need to execute are done with a SQL statement.

By and large, a SQL statement Begins by saying what to make ( for illustration, “ SELECT ” ) , so states which object to make it to ( for illustration, utilizing the “ FROM ” clause ) .

SELECT * FROM Individual

It may besides hold a status added to the terminal ( for illustration, with a WHERE clause ) .

SELECT * FROM Individual

WHERE FirstName = ‘Homer ‘

SQL is non instance sensitive – the above illustrations could merely hold easy used all small letter or all uppercase. Different coders have their ain penchants. For readability intents, many SQL coders prefer to utilize capital for SQL bids and small letter for everything else.

DML & A ; DDL

SQL is divided into two chief classs ; Data Manipulation Language ( DML ) , and Data Definition Language ( DDL ) . An account follows.

Data Manipulation Language ( DML )

DML enables you to work with the informations that goes into the database. DML is used to infix, choose, update, and delete records in the database. Many of your SQL statements will get down with one of the undermentioned bids:

SELECT – Retrieves informations from the database

INSERT – Inserts new informations into the database

UPDATE – Updates bing informations in the database

DELETE – Deletes bing informations from the database

Data Definition Language ( DDL )

You may besides on occasion need to make or drop a tabular array or other datbase object. SQL enables you to make this programatically utilizing DDL.

Examples of DDL bids:

CREATE DATABASE – Creates a new database

ALTER DATABASE – Modifies the database

DROP DATABASE – Drops ( deletes ) a database

CREATE TABLE – Creates a new tabular array

ALTER TABLE – Modifies the tabular array

DROP TABLE – Drops ( deletes ) a tabular array

The SELECT statement is likely the most normally used in SQL. It merely retrieves informations from the database.

Lashkar-e-taibas have a expression at a simple SELECT statement:

SELECT * FROM Individual

SQL Select

This SQL SELECT statement is trying to recover all columns from a tabular array called Individual.

How do we cognize it is seeking to choose all columns? Because it is utilizing an star ( * ) . This is a speedy manner of choosing all columns – it ‘s much easier than composing out the names of all columns ( particularly if there are a batch of columns ) .

Of class, this SQL SELECT statement assumes that there is a tabular array called Individual. If there was n’t, an mistake would be generated.

Lashkar-e-taibas have a expression at the tabular array the statement is seeking to choose informations from:

IndividualId

FirstName

LastName

UserName

1

Fred

Flinstone

freddo

2

Homer

Wallis warfield windsor

homey

3

Homer

Brown

notsofamous

4

Ozzy

Ozzbourne

Sabbath

5

Homer

Addition

noplacelike

Select from Multiple Tables

You can choose from more than one tabular array at a clip. To make this, merely separate each tabular array with a comma. You should besides measure up any mentions to columns by puting the tabular array name in forepart, separated by a point.

SQL Where

In the old lesson, we used a SQL SELECT statement to recover all records from a database tabular array. This is all right if we want to see every record, but what if we were merely interested in some records? For illustration, what if we were merely interested in persons whose first name is “ Homer ” ?

We could utilize the WHERE clause.

Using the WHERE clause, you can filtrate out merely those records that satisfy a given status.

SQL WHERE Syntax

SELECT * FROM table_name

WHERE column_name = ‘criteria ‘

Multiple Conditionss

You can filtrate records based on more than one status utilizing operators. Two common operators are the AND and OR operators.

AND Operator

The AND operator filters the question to merely those records that satisfy both the first status and the 2nd status.

SELECT * FROM Individual

WHERE FirstName = ‘Homer ‘

AND LastName = ‘Brown ‘

OR Operator

The OR operator filters the question to merely those records that satisfy either one or the other status.

SELECT * FROM Individual

WHERE FirstName = ‘Homer ‘

OR LastName = ‘Ozzbourne ‘

SQL In

The SQL IN operator aids you in supplying multiple values in your WHERE clause. This can supply really utile when you need to compare your value to a list of values. Often this list could be the consequence of a question from another tabular array.

SQL Syntax

SELECT * FROM table_name

WHERE column_name IN ( value1, value2, … )

SQL Inner Join

As discussed in the old lesson, you should utilize the SQL INNER JOIN when you merely want to return records where there is at least one row in both tabular arraies that match the articulation status.

Example SQL statement

SELECT * FROM Individual

INNER JOIN Publisher

ON Individual.IndividualId = Publisher.IndividualId

WHERE Individual.IndividualId = ‘2 ‘

Beginning Tables

Left Table

Gem state

FirstName

LastName

UserName

1

Fred

Flinstone

freddo

2

Homer

Wallis warfield windsor

homey

3

Homer

Brown

notsofamous

4

Ozzy

Ozzbourne

Sabbath

5

Homer

Addition

noplacelike

Right Table

IndividualId

AccessLevel

1

Administrator

2

Subscriber

3

Subscriber

4

Subscriber

10

Administrator

Consequence

IndividualId

FirstName

LastName

UserName

IndividualId

AccessLevel

2

Homer

Wallis warfield windsor

homey

2

Subscriber

SQL Outer Join

This lesson covers both the left outer articulation, the right outer articulation, and the full outer articulation, and explains the differences between them. There are some occasions where you would necessitate to utilize a left outer articulation or a right outer articulation, and others where you would necessitate a full outer articulation. The articulation type you use will depend on the state of affairs and what information you need to return.

Left Outer Join

Use this when you merely want to return rows that have fiting informations in the left tabular array, even if there ‘s no duplicate rows in the right tabular array.

Example SQL statement

SELECT * FROM Individual AS Ind

LEFT JOIN Publisher AS Pub

ON Ind.IndividualId = Pub.IndividualId

Beginning Tables

Left Table

Gem state

FirstName

LastName

UserName

1

Fred

Flinstone

freddo

2

Homer

Wallis warfield windsor

homey

3

Homer

Brown

notsofamous

4

Ozzy

Ozzbourne

Sabbath

5

Homer

Addition

noplacelike

SQL Insert

Up until now, this book has covered the SELECT statement and fluctuations on it. We are now about to larn a new statement – the INSERT statement.

The SQL INSERT bid allows you to infix a record into a tabular array in your database. As with the SELECT sentence structure, the INSERT sentence structure is rather consecutive forward.

SQL statement

INSERT INTO Individual

VALUES ( ‘6 ‘ , ‘Benny ‘ , ‘Hill ‘ , ‘hillbenny ‘ )

SQL Update

The SQL UPDATE statement allows you to update an bing record in the database.

The UPDATE bid uses a WHERE clause. If you do n’t utilize a WHERE clause, all rows will be updated. In fact, the sentence structure for a basic Update statement is really similar to a SELECT statement.

SQL statement

UPDATE Individual

SET UserName = ‘funnyman ‘

WHERE IndividualId = ‘6 ‘

Updating Multiple William claude dukenfields

To update multiple Fieldss, separate each field assignment with a comma.

SQL statement

UPDATE Individual

SET UserName = ‘getserious ‘ , FirstName = ‘Onetree ‘

WHERE IndividualId = ‘6 ‘

SQL Delete

The SQL DELETE statement allows you to cancel a record from the database.

The DELETE bid uses a WHERE clause. If you do n’t utilize a WHERE clause, all rows in the tabular array will be deleted. Again, as with the UPDATE statement, the sentence structure for a basic DELETE statement is similar to a SELECT statement.

SQL statement

DELETE

FROM Individual

WHERE IndividualId = ‘6 ‘

SQL Create

Most database systems provide a manner for you to make database objects via a WYSIWYG interface. For illustration, Microsoft ‘s SQL Server has Enterprise Manager. The Enterprise Manager gives you a sort of graphical representation of your database system. You can shop through your databases, view the tabular arraies and their contents etc.

Despite holding a tool like Enterprise Manager to do these undertakings easier, there can be good grounds for desiring to execute some of these undertakings programatically. Possible grounds could include:

Your application allows users to make objects on the fly.

You have multiple environments ( for illustration development, theatrical production, production ) . It ‘s much easier, and less mistake prone, to run a book against 3 environments than to open up Enterprise Manager and reiterate the stairss in 3 environments – particularly if you have tonss of alterations.

You do n’t hold entree to Enterprise Manager ( or your database system ‘s equivalent ) .

Fortunately, SQL has a figure of CREATE bids that enable you to programatically make database objects including the database, its tabular arraies and more.

Here are the CREATE bids supported by SQL Server:

CREATE ACTION

CREATE CACHE

CREATE CELL CALCULATION

CREATE CUBE

CREATE DATABASE

CREATE DEFAULT

CREATE FUNCTION

Methodology

In this portion of the study we will discourse in item about the codifications of the package and how they were developed. Mentions of which are given later in the study.

There are 5 chief subdivision in this undertaking

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Creating Software For Oral Examination Timetabling Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/creating-software-for-oral-examination-timetabling-computer-science-new-essay

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