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Undeniably medicine has advanced a lot and has given answers to difficult medical conditions of the past. But in order to reach this point a lot of experiments have been performed on animals and people. The question that is now posed is whether medicine follows the rules of ethics and what’s the limit that should be trespassed. The arise of ethical dilemmas due to the evolution of medicine have brought the mankind to a point of reconsidering ethics, deontology and ethical boundaries.
Some medical practices that face criticism are transplants, experiments on people euthanasia, the matter of eugenics and whether religious perception should be taken into account.
Ethics is defined as a group of values principles and rules which can regulate the human behavior and concern the degree up to which the human actions can influence significantly not only their lives but Oslo the lives of others. The main aim of ethics is to assist with the dealing of ethical puzzling, to form criteria and rules of ethical behavior and lead humans to making the right choices.
The way people perform medicine consists an indication of people’s civilization and their ability to perceive important terms such as life and death. Looking back in time the babilonian law and Hamourabi codes n’implementer harsh repercussions to the doctors in case they provoked ths death of a patient.
In ancient Egypt medical responsibility was defined in the Bible and its rules which the doctors were obliged to follow and on case they acted improperly they were punished with death.
The oath of Hippocrates which consists the first text of bioethics and contains important issues of medical ethics such as patient’s confidentiality and the forbidding of abortions is still the foundation of medical deontology. In modern times now the code civil in France consists briefing part of the law and the same goes in 1894 in Germany. After the end of WW2 there has been an important development on issues concerning medical experimentation.
In the well-known trial of Nuremberg a code was formed where the consent of the individual is absolutely necessary I order to perform experiments on them. An other important text of bioethical content, although it has no legal action, is the declaration of International Health Organization in Helsinki in 1964. Some more codes and declarations which concern the medical sector are the following: 1949: International Code of Medical Ethics- London 1968: The Declaration of Sydney 1970: The Declaration of Oslo 1975: The Declaration of Tokyo 1977: The Declaration of Hawaii 1981: The Declaration of Lisbon* 1983: The Declaration of Venice. The emphasis given to codes of ethics and deontology in the medical sector is a phenomenon of modern times that came as a consequence of the experimentation done on people during the WW2.
We should take into consideration before judging that medicine in based on experience. It’s progress, the medicine even the training of the future doctors is based on the execution of complex experiments. What was the first surgery if not an experiment on humans for the first time? The same goes with medicine. We monitor a patient after giving him treatment. Furthermore in some cases it is important to perform an experiment such as a blood test in order to make an accurate diagnosis. It is the rapid frequency os experiments on people that leads to further thinking.
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