Children and Young People Development
Children and Young People Development
Section 1: – The pattern of development from birth to nineteen 1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19yrs 1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important Section 2 – The factors that influence development
2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors 2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors 2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice Section 1 complete:
Section 2 complete:
Section 3 – How to monitor development and make appropriate interventions 3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods 3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern 3.3 Explain how disability may affect development
3.4 Explain how different types of intervention can promote positive outcome for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern Section 4 – Early intervention for children’s speech, language and communication and development 4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays the disorders and the potential risk of late recognition 4.2 Explain how mutli-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication 4.3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication Section 3 complete:
Section 4 complete:
Section 5 – Transitions and the effect on child development 5.1 Explain how the different types of transition can affect children and young people’s development 5.2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition Section 5 complete:
You and a colleague have agreed to run a series of training workshops at a local college for students interested in working in child care. You have been invited in to show your knowledge of Child and Young Person Development in a school setting.
Your colleague is going to write the training presentations but you need to create a series of handouts which summarise the key points.
The headings of the workshops are:
the pattern of development from birth to nineteen
the factors that influence development
how to monitor development and make appropriate interventions early intervention for children’s speech, language and communication development transitions and the effect on a child’s development
Your handouts could be in any form and could include written information, diagrams, tables and illustrations. Use the structure below to produce the 5 handouts that your colleague has asked you to create. You must cover each of
the assessment criteria.
Handout Number One: the pattern of development from birth to nineteen Assessment Criteria: Please tick the box when you believe you have covered this in the content. 1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 yrs 1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important
1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 yrs Age Range
0 – 9 months
Emotional attachment to parents.
Feelings (happy; sad; afraid.).
A need for a sense of wellbeing and predictability of daily tasks. Starts to develop a sense of discernment for food and toys etc.
Sleeps for most of the day.
Shows excitement through waving arms and kicking legs.
From 6 months on begins to rollover; sit independently; starts to crawl and pull up to standing position. Reaches out for objects and begins to grip them.
Neck muscles strengthen enabling baby to hold head up.
Slight responses using senses (sight; sound; smell; touch; taste). Mouthing objects
Identify familiar people by their voices and facial features. Egocentric.
Begins to compile visual images and to appreciate ‘reveal’ games i.e. peek-a-boo.
Responsive to sound and familiar voices and turns head toward sounds.
Responsive to facial expressions i.e. smiles.
Begins to ‘babble’ and ‘gurgle’.
Begins to say ‘dada’ and ‘mama’.
Aware of familiar family names.
9 – 18 months
Emotions develop i.e. Happiness; Anger; Fear.
Distressed when others are upset.
Looks for security and assurance from known adults, needs to be loved and cuddled. Draws away from strangers.
Walking; shuffling; toddling.
Begins to build blocks, can throw; hold a book.
Pincer grip develops enabling child to hold pencils etc.
Develops sleeping routine.
Begins to imitate behaviours in others.
Learns through the senses.
Likes to hear objects named and understands familiar language i.e. eat; drink; dressed; bed. Begins to develop vocabulary (3 – 20 words).
Uses gesture to communicate and reinforce language i.e. waving and saying ‘bye bye’ Connects sounds into ‘sentence structures’.
18 months – 3 years
Learns to trust and become more confident.
Has temper tantrums.
Develops a sense of ‘self’ ant the need to do something for ‘self’. Understands and uses ‘No’.
Shows lots of emotions.
Lacks awareness of emotions in others.
Begin to feed themselves.
Draws, starts to stack blocks as fine motor skills develop.
Can walk, run, climb stairs with caution.
Enjoys action songs and begins to participate.
Begin to use potty / toilet.
Help to dress themselves.
Recognise and name objects.
Increased attention span, although still quite short.
Continue to learn through the senses.
Ability to match shapes and colours.
Develop vocabulary at a rate of 3 words a month.
Use three to four word sentences.
Begins to sing simple songs and nursery rhythms.
Can repeat simple messages.
3 – 5 years
Unaware of others feelings.
Sensitive to feelings of other people towards self.
Wants to please, seeks approval.
Expresses emotions to others e.g. jealousy; anger; happiness.
Ability to draw, use scissors, play catch.
Can ride a tricycle, jump, run with confidence.
Enjoys sensory play i.e. sandpit; water, play doh, finger painting. Improved dressing skills.
Rapid muscle growth.
Uses imagination a lot, enjoys role play and dramatic play.
Begins to see ‘cause and effect’ relationships.
Is curious and inquisitive.
Asks numerous questions.
Can develop imaginary friends.
Aware of right from wrong.
Vocabulary increased up to 1500 words.
Can have extended conversations.
Can describe an event or what happened that da.
Can carry out simple instructions.
5 – 12 years
May start to show fear of dark, dogs, falling etc.
Finds it difficult to accept criticism.
Doesn’t like losing.
Can display aggressive behaviour / tantrums.
Can vocalise their needs and feelings.
Can dress and undress.
Care for own toilet needs.
Confident running, jumping etc.
Fine motor skills improved. Can draw, write, colour in more accurately. Learns to read and write.
Can recognise and name more complicated shapes and colours.
Can follow more detailed instructions.
Starting to form opinions.
Vocabulary up to 4000 words.
Sentence structure improves and question asking become complex, why; how; when. Ability to remember events and describe with greater details. 7 – 12 years
.Girls are beginning to develop faster than boys.
Increasing awareness of self and others and the environment. Usually affectionate, helpful, cheerful, outgoing.
Can be rude, bossy, demanding.
Independence growing, dependable and trustworthy.
Has improved body control.
Becomes more competitive.
Fine motor skills improve.
Handwriting becomes neater and smaller.
Baby teeth fall replaced by adult teeth.
Hand eye co-ordination improves.
Increased ability academically i.e. literacy; mathematics; reading; IT. Can form and articulate compound opinions.
Creative and likes to experiment.
Develops interests, seeks facts, capable of prolonged interest. Can do more abstract thinking and reasoning.
Challenges adult knowledge.
Vocabulary increases to 10,000 words.
Sentence structure takes on greater complexity.
Ability to use grammar correctly including appropriate use of a wider range of language and punctuality. Appreciation of humour develops.
12 – 16 years
Puberty begins, affecting emotional development.
Greater sense of independence.
Better understanding of other people beliefs and opinions.
Will debate and argue their own view point with clarity and an ability to justify their reasoning. Can become sulky and withdrawn.
Develops a greater interest in appearance and what others think of them.
Physical changes brought on by puberty.
Rapid growth and muscle development.
Become more efficient at running, swimming etc.
Ability to be a team player.
Possible acne or similar skin problems.
Healthy appetite to discuss and debate opinions and causes.
Increased ability for more difficult maths, literacy, reading, researching. Can vocalise own ideas and beliefs.
Increasingly able to memorise, to think logically about concepts, to engage I introspection and probing into own thinking. To plan realistically for the future.
Vocabulary increases to 20,000 words.
Ability to manipulate language and use in appropriate settings. Can clearly and concisely articulate view points and question others points of view. Extended reading list.
Appreciation of humour.
16 – 19 years
Worries about failure.
May appear moody, angry, lonely, impulsive, self-centred, confused and stubborn. Has conflicting feelings about dependence/independence.
Has essentially completed physical maturation, physical features are shaped and defined. Probability of acting on sexual desires increases.
Can understand and resolve extremely complex theories in maths, science, IT etc. Reading and writing matures.
Ability to debate and discuss at higher level with peer groups. A greater ability to use language and understand use appropriately. Ability to use grammar correctly and adapt as necessary.
More sophisticated use of humour and word play.
1.2 Explain the difference between the sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.
The sequence of development is the order in which development takes places and all physical development happens in the same order for most people e.g. a baby must be able to hold its head without support before it can sit with just its lower back supported and then stand. A child’s development is generally broken down in to four of five specific categories i.e. physical; communication; intellectual/cognitive; social/emotional/behavioural and moral. Using these specific categories one can monitor the phases and stages of development within a ‘normal’ age range.
The rate of development is the time period development happens at, there are guidelines available created from information gathered from observation indicating at what age various stages of development should occur, however, these are guidelines and one should remember all children are individuals and develop differently.
The difference is important is because all guidelines are written in a way to support the development of a neurotypical child, therefore, if a child does not develop in line with the guidance it could indicate that there may be a problem. The guidelines provided for childhood development are a very useful tool used by both professionals and carer’s to monitor what a child can and cannot do at various stages in their development. By monitoring a child’s developmental progress, early indicators could be identified alerting the professional that there is a problem. It will also support professionals to plan efficiently and refer appropriately to ensure that a child gets the attention required to address the areas in which they are struggling.
All areas of development are linked together, for example, speech can be affected if the child has difficulty hearing. The rate a child develops at can also be affected by their environment. One would expect a child who has extensive social interaction with people opportunities to play would develop faster than a child who has a more isolated life style and more limited opportunities to mix with groups of people and play.
Handout Number Two: the factors that influence development
Assessment Criteria: Please tick the box when you believe you have covered this in the content. 2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors 2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors 2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice
2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors
Children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors and how they can impact on the child’s rate of development and sense of well-bein rg.
If a child has Special Educational Needs their development can be severely delayed in comparison to their peer group. Children who have conditions such as autism or global development delay social skills will not develop as expected, they may not have the skills required to interact with their peer group or learn through play. Children who fall in to this group may also lack the ability to copy or communicate through gesture and language and can often be described to be ‘in their own little world’.
If a child has a physical disability their rate of development could be adversely effected. Children with mobility issues may not be able to walk or run. Their social interaction and opportunities may be limited and they may not mix as much as an able bodied child with their peer group. Appointments with consultants and hospital could mean that they miss school. Their disability may mean they are not invited to birthday parties and social functions as an assumption could be made that if they can’t join in, they won’t enjoy it.
If a child comes from an abusive home they could have emotional disabilities preventing them from trusting other people, especially adults. Doubting their own self-worth and their confidence in their own ability. It is very difficult for a child who has been mentally or physically abused to understand a safe and secure environment as it is alien to what they have come to accept as their ‘norm’. They can feel they are not as good as other children and believe that they cannot achieve what their peer group is achieving. Feeling like this about oneself can be crippling and can prevent a child achieving their full potential and it takes a lot of input from appropriate professional to help the child to recover.
2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. Children and young people’s development is influenced by a wide range of external factors. These can include anything from situation in the home, school or local community.
If a family moves house when a child is young this can adversely affect their development. A child of school age could be plucked from the security of a community and school where they feel safe and have a group of friends and find themselves in a new school, living in an unfamiliar community and what could feel like a scary and alien environment. It can be daunting to the point of socially crippling for some young children to join an established class, to be the ‘new’ child and to learn how to fit in with their new peer group and understand the rules of how the peer group function.
As a consequence struggling to fit in could impact on the child’s academic achievement, self-confidence and social development.
A child’s development can be affected if a new baby arrives. When the family dynamic changes all members of the family will subconsciously review their place in the family structure. Whether they go from being an old child to eldest child; baby of the family to middle child or only boy / girl to eldest boy / girl etc.
It can be difficult to find your niche and the introduction of the new member of the family can result in feelings of jealousy, no longer being needed, feeling you have been replaced or feeling less special. All of these feelings can cause the child to stop talking, regression, bed wetting or spiteful behaviour toward the baby. When a family are expecting a baby they should take time to discuss the new arrival, think about how it will effect ‘me’ and encourage the children, reassuring them that they are very much loved and that the new baby will really need it’s big brothers / sisters and that all the children in the family are special.
It is possible to manage and plan to minimise the effect of some external factors that could influence the development of children and young people such as moving house and having a new baby. Unfortunately, sometimes things happen which we haven’t had time to prepare for. If a family member, close friend of the family, class mate or even a pet dies a child can find it very difficult to understand. The concept of death is challenging for most adults to comprehend so trying to explain to a child that someone they love has left and they won’t be seeing them anymore can devastate a child. They will struggle to manage these new emotions and there is a risk they blame themselves. As with other external factors which influence their development the child could regress, become introvert, find it hard to trust relationships with people who might just leave them. It can affect their school work and may take them some time to accept the death and move forward. They will need a huge am out of emotional support.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and framework to support development influence current practice.
Over the years there have been many theorists who have studied child development and considered what might effect and influence their stages and rate of development. The theorists were all driven by individual ideals and
beliefs. Many of their theories influence common practice in early year’s environments and schools today.
Piaget’s (1896-1980) theory looks at stages of cognitive development. According to Piaget children progress through four stages of cognitive development which indicate how they see the world. Piaget believed that children actively try to explore the world around them and try to make sense of it. Through his observations Piaget’s developed a theory of intellectual development that included four stages. The sensorimotor stage from birth to 2; the preoperational stage from 2 to 7; the concrete operational stage from 7 to 11 and the formal operational stage which begins in adolescence and continues in to adulthood. Piaget thought that all children develop at their own speed but got there in the end.
By considering each child individually and thinking about how one would create the best learning experience for them we are providing them with a quality learning experience. In the classroom we must consider that all children are not at the same stage of cognitive development. There needs to be a variety of suitable learning experiences for children at various levels of cognitive development. This supports outcome-based education (OBE) principals which state that individual learners needs must be catered for through multiple teaching and learning strategies and assessment tools and that learners must be allowed to demonstrate their learning achievements and competence in whatever manner and most appropriate to their abilities.
Marlow (1908-1970) was a humanist. His theory suggest that our actions are motivated in order to achieve our needs. His theory ‘A theory of Human Motivation’ is often displayed as a pyramid detailing a hierarchy of need. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of our most basic needs i.e. physical requirements including the need for water, food sleep and warmth. Once these are met people move up to the next level, a need for security and safety. People move up the pyramid towards the top requiring the need for friendship, love and a need for personal esteem and feelings of friendship.
Maslows theory can be seen in the classroom by the introduction of water bottles, regular healthy snacks, breakfast clubs and lunch at appropriate time in the school day schedule. Once the child’s basic needs have been met it is presumed that the child is best placed to learn. There is a huge emphasis on safe guarding in schools, everyone working in the school environment is trained to look out for possible signs of neglect, and this too supports Marlow to ensure the child’s needs are met.
Skinner (1904-1990) believed the best way to understand behaviour is to look at the cause of an action and its consequences. He called his approach ‘operant conditioning’. This means the changing of behaviour by the use of a reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of response i) neutral response – responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behaviour being repeated. Ii) Reinforcer’s – responses from the environment that increases the probability of a behaviour being repeated. Reinforcer’s can be either positive or negative. iii) Punishers – response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of behaviour being repeated. Punishment weakens behaviour.
Skinner’s theory can be implemented in the classroom by introducing a reward system. In younger classes ‘smiley/sad’ reward charts are displayed and smiley faces are given for good behaviour and sad faces for less favourable behaviour. As children grow older merit marks are given in recognition of good behaviour and detention for unwanted behaviour.
Handout Number Three: how to monitor development and make appropriate interventions Assessment Criteria: Please tick the box when you believe you have covered this in the content.
3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods
3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern
3.3 Explain how disability may affect development
3.4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern
3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods.
There are various methods of monitoring children’s and young people’s development. There are both summative (the assessment of the learning and summarizes the development of learners at a particular time) and formative (a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension) methods such as formal testing i.e. SATs, which record a child’s academic achievement or observations, target checklists, tick box checklists. Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) sets the standards for development, learning and care of children from birth to 5 years. There 2 main assessments of children carried out i) EYFS check children at 2 yrs providing a short summary of a child’s development between 24 and 36 months. ii) the EYFS profile provides a summary and details the child’s attainment at the age of 5.
In Primary and Secondary Education the National Curriculum is followed. The National Curriculum covers learning for all children aged 5 -16 in state schools. Children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) work to ‘P’ scales, this is the statutory method used for reporting attainment.
Key Stages were intruded in 1988. Targets defined in the National Curriculum are assessed at the end of each key stage. Key Stage 1 covers years 1 and 2, Key Stage 2 covers years 3 to 6. At the end of the Key Stage the children are tested by using SATs (Standard Assessment Tests). These are tests that are set for pupils in Key Stage 1 in year 2, in Key Stage 2 in year 6 and in Key Stage 3 during years 7-9. They are designed to measure pupil’s progress in the core national curriculum subjects compared to other children of the same age. They are a method of assessing pupils, monitoring progress and help plan future teaching. The children are tested in an exam like environment and provide a comprehensive indication of the child’s academic attainment. SATs provide a method of understanding academic achievement, however, many other methods are used to monitor children’s development including observation. It’s essential to maintain paper records, recording what you see and feeding back to the parents. Teaching Assistants support the teachers with observations and will monitor areas of development such as speech, language, social interaction, physical and age appropriate behaviour, feeding back to the teacher with any area of concern.
3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. 3.3 Explain how disability may affect development. There are lots of reasons that children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. It’s important to mindful that all children are different and will develop at different rates. However, it is also very important to observe children and be aware of significant differences in their development to that of their peer group. Emotional issues can impact on child development. Children who have experienced the death of a parent; sibling; close family member can become socially isolated. Not understanding the emotions they are experiencing, managing their own loss and grief and watching the grief and loss of their loved ones can cause them to regress. Some children have been known to stop talking when they experienced the loss of someone who was integral to their safe and secure world.
They can experience anxiety and feel that others may suddenly die/disappear from their life. Children who are in care could have difficulty with their social development. If they do not have the opportunity to form a loving, trusting relationship with their parents then they could have difficulty forming trusting relationships with other people. Their own self value and self-worth could also be effected, feeling if their parents don’t want them then why anyone else would. Children do not have the capacity to completely understand all of the details of why they are in care but will feel the pain of rejection and in order to protect themselves could build up barriers, preventing them from interacting fully with their peers, teachers and care providers. Children who suffer with ongoing health issues development may not follow the expected pattern. If they have an issue which could result in lots of hospital appointments or days absent from school due to ill health not only can their academic achievement be adversely effected so can their emotional and social development.
If their health issue is also a physical disability it could prevent them from participating in sports and physically able events. They could find that they are not included in activities or invited to parties as they are unable to take part. This in turn could affect social skills and self-confidence. Children from different cultural backgrounds may develop at different rates and stages purely because the expectation of their culture is different. Some cultures view boys and girls differently and their expectations are according to gender could vary, there focus on areas of development and personal achievements to strive toward may differ to those that are in the UK’s expected pattern. The most significant factor that will affect development and prevent it from following the expected pattern is disability. Disability covers a multitude of issues including physical disability, sensory impairment (sight, hearing) or a developmental disorder such as autism.
If a child’s fine motor skills and gross motor skills are not developing they will have problems controlling a pencil, developing independence skills feeding themselves (holding a spoon), walking, running, jumping. Children who are different will struggle in their peer group whether it be because they physically can’t keep up or if they socially can’t keep up. Communication problems can create a barrier to forming friendships and social integration. Children with severe developmental disabilities such as autism will develop very differently to the expected pattern. The world could seem alien to them, language a mystery, everything could cause confusion. Children with sensory processing disorder can struggle to cope in their environment and find it very hard to tolerate various experiences. A lot depends on the severity of the disability and the support and facilities available to the child. A child born with Down Syndrome will have a care plan in place from birth, their development pattern already differentiating from their peer group, expectations adjusted to take account of the delays one would expect to see in a Downs baby.
Children with medical conditions such as cerebral palsy, again diagnosed from birth, could have associated learning difficulties which will effect both physical and mental development, so their expected development plan will be adjusted to include in their areas of disability. Children born with autism may not receive a diagnosis until they reach school age. Although they may have always been slightly different to their peer group, left undetected and diagnosed the expectation would still be to follow the normal pattern. However, once diagnosed adjustments would be made taking in to account the triad of impairments and how the child autism impacts on their development. Their social skills may not develop as expected, they may not see the need to have friends or want to have friends. They may not understand role play, have appropriate communication skills. They may have sensory issues. These children are unique and they will develop at their own pace and in their own time.
3.4 Explain how different types of intervention can promote positive outcome for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
There are many types of interventions promoting positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected patterns.
Social Workers work closely with the family and care providers to support a child who has been identified with having developmental problems or a disability. Social workers are a key link to other professionals who will work with the child. Their role is to form a professional relationship with the family and become someone the family can trust and turn to if they need to access other services. A social worker will assess the family’s needs and identify what is required to support the family and the child and channel this through to access the resources required to meet the needs. They will intervene if there are problems at school and remain a constant between the parents and child if a child is placed in temporary care, providing the child with a familiar trusted adult.
Educational psychologist’s asses’ children in school, working with the class teacher to identify how a child learns. They look at the individual learners who have been identified as gifted and talented or with learning difficulties and provided a detailed report discussing what external and internal factors may impact on the child’s ability to learn. The educational psychologist will report on areas including physical development; communication; cognitive; educational attainment; approaches and attitude to learning; social emotional behaviour; independence/self hep skills; child’s views; parents views and factors impacting on progress. The report will detail recommendations to the school and if the child has a Statement of Special Needs to the Local Authority. The recommendations will include the type of provision a child needs to learn, the type of environment and the type of strategies that will support the child to achieve their full potential.
Speech and Language Therapists (SaLT) provide expertise in language, communication and swallowing disorders. They will assess the child in clinic and work closely with allied professionals to provide support. During the assessment they will provide a differential diagnosis, interventions and management for children with difficulties. They work closely with the child’s family; paediatricians; SENCO’s; teachers etc. to provide strategies and techniques to reduce the impact these difficulties have on the child’s learning.
SaLT’s work with children who have difficulties including articulation delay; phonological delay; phonological disorder; developmental language delay; developmental language disorder; specific language impairment, dysphagia; dysfluency; social communication disorder; voice disorder; cleft lip/palate and oral dyspraxia. A SaLT uses their discretion to identify if a child’s SaLT difficulty is an educational requirement or not and where is should be situated on the child’s Statement of Special Needs.
Occupational Therapist’s (OT) asses and treat physical and psychiatric conditions using specific activities to prevent disability and promote independence in daily life. They work with a wide range of people including children and young people to support them to overcome their disability. OT will work with children who have been given a diagnosis and will implement strategies which will support the child become part of the child’s daily tasks. They deliver support to children with diagnosis’ including physical disability and Cerebral Palsy; Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)/Dyspraxia; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Sensory Processing Disorders; Significant Development Delay and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).
These are only a few of the many professionals working with children and young people to provide strategies and on-going support to ensure that the child’s need are met and that they are placed in the best possible education environment. Working together to provide a multi-agency approach will ensure a positive outcome for the child and their family enhancing and enabling the child to achieve their full potential.