Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Essay
Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation
1.1 Background of the Study
The Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography to the Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child prostitution as a commercial sexual exploitation of children whereby a child sells his or her body for sexual activities in return for remuneration or any other form of benefit provided to the prostitute or to another person (United Nations General Assembly, 2000). According to worldwide estimations by the International Labor Organization, out of the 12.3 million people victim to forced labor, 1.39 million are victims of commercial sexual exploitation, 40-50% of who are children (ILO, 2004). Nowadays, we have an increasing rate of child prostitution that is still considered as the worst form of child labor in Asia. UNICEF estimates that 1 million children are lured into sex trade in Asia every year. These children are exploited by local men and foreign tourists having an average of 5 to 10 clients per day, generating $5 billion per year wherein 40% were sold by parents and 15% by their relatives (Willis, 2002). Japan and South Korea had been two of many Asian countries that currently face the problem of child prostitution. Together with its increasing trend, countries like Japan and Korea have been continually making its effort in solving this problem with a common goal in reducing and in a long run eliminate commercial sexual exploitation of children to protect their rights, welfare and create a better future for upcoming generations. 1.2 Statement of the Problem This study is a comparative analysis on child prostitution in Japan and South Korea.
This will provide data on the causes and forms of child prostitution within these countries and the laws and protocols implemented in both countries to fight against child prostitution. Moreover, this paper gears to answer some core questions: 1. What are the primary causes of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? 2. What are the different forms of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? 3. What are the laws and protocols signed in solution to fight against child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? Was it able to address the problems regarding child prostitution? 1.3Significance of the Study This study will give way for the analysis in the difference on the condition of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea. In addition to that this would be able to differentiate how Japan and South Korea face this common problem of child prostitution that in turn will lay an overview of the prevalent obstacle almost all of the countries is facing and battling nowadays.
This would lead to the identification of several factors that makes child prostitution very prevalent these days that is very important to be able to address these issues to secure children’s rights and welfare. This would identify specific actions and efforts of the government in both countries to solve child prostitution issues in their respective places that would somehow extend some concern towards the identification of important factors that is needed to be considered in solving this particular dilemma not only in the studied places but also to other countries as well. This study aims to lay possible strategies that must be implemented in other countries to solve this current problem regarding child prostitution. 1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study The researcher aspire to have a comparative analysis of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea as a requirement on Political Science 60- Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics under Prof. Marilou F. Siton-Nanaman and the Department of Political Science, Mindanao State University-Institute of Technology. This paper limits its study within the countries mentioned and this study is set to answer the ahead mentioned core questions pertaining to both countries involved. The study underwent a month of data gathering using books, newspaper and reliable internet sources such as e-books. Online sources for data were primarily used.
1.5Conceptual FrameworkCHILD PROSTITUTION
Figure 1 – Conceptual Diagram of Child Prostitution in Japan and South Korea Child prostitution in countries like Japan and South Korea are caused by several major factors that make it more prevalent these days. In order to take action with the said dilemma, the identification of the forms of child prostitution is very vital in order to formulate and develop laws that would identify grounds and address cases that violate the rights of the children. Through proper implementation of these laws child prostitution are being reduced to secure children’s welfare and rights.
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms
Prostitution- the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations especially for money or other benefits Remuneration- payment or compensation received for services or employment Sexual Exploitation- the use of a child for sexual purposes in exchange for cash or in-kind favors between a customer, intermediary or agent and others who profit from the trade in children for these purposes—parent, family member, procurer, teacher
Forced Labor- is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form punishment.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, related studies and previous works pertaining to child prostitution in countries that discusses relevant major information related to the comparative study of Japan and South Korea are discussed. The demand for sex drives child sex trafficking globally, while poverty, domestic violence and abuse, discrimination and the desire for a better life make children vulnerable. Children are especially vulnerable to being trafficked because they are often poorly educated, easy to overpower and easy to convince that they must do what an adult tells them to do. Children may also be in a position where they believe they must help to support their families and may be sold or sent abroad by family members to do so. Street children, children in refugee camps, children whose family and community life has been disrupted and do not have someone to look out for them are all especially vulnerable to human trafficking and prone to sex labor
(http://ecpat.net/EI/Publications/Trafficking/Factsheet_South_Korea.pdf) Date Accessed: October13, 2011. According to the study conducted by the International Labor Organization through its Action against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children Programs in Thailand, Philippines, Colombia , Costa Rica and Nicaragua in 2001 that poverty is one contributing factor to the sexual exploitation of children and that is an increasing reality in both Latin America and Asia (ILO_IPEC, 2001). A series of Asian economic crises in the closing years of the 20th century have had a clear impact on the numbers of children being exploited both for labor in general and sexual exploitation in particular. Children living or working on the streets, young domestic workers and child workers in sweatshops and transportation sector—all “placed” in these vulnerable situations as a multi-faceted response to poverty – are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation. In many countries including Thailand and Philippines, the movement of children from villages and rural areas to cities in the guise of earning money for the family is a major factor in trafficking and sexual exploitation (Thematic Evaluation on Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children, 2001). ILO-IPEC research report of August 1999 indicated that there was an increase of 20 percent in the number of minors working in prostitution in Thailand between January 1998 and January 1999. This coincides with the aftermath of the economic crises in Thailand (International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour,2001).
This report has already touched the importance of trying to develop qualitative indicators and impact measures for the specific needs of evaluating trafficking and sex exploitation-related programming. Child prostitution and pornography is viewed as an increasing serious problem in Japan. Shihoko Fujiwara, representative of Polaris Project Japan, a nonprofit organization that provides support to children and women who are victims of sexual abuse and trafficking, stated that child pornography and child prostitution cases detected in Japan exceeds 5,000 annually, and the number is rising year by year. “One of the reasons for the increase,” she said, “is that a growing number of children have become involved in the business through the widespread use of the Internet” (Shimbun, 2010).
In 1998, Interpol estimated that nearly 80% of the world’s Internet-based child pornography websites originated in Japan. Although the Japanese government passed legislation in 1999 that effectively cracked down on child pornography providers, Japan continues to be a major producer and patron of child sex tourism. In a recent press conference to announce the release of the State Department’s annual Trafficking in Persons Report which analyzes human trafficking worldwide and documents governments’ responses to it, Secretary of State Colin Powell and Director John Miller both expressed their particular disappointment with Japan – a country which, despite the immense resources available to it, was failing to take appropriate steps to end child sex tourism and other forms of human exploitation.
As one of the largest economies in the world, Director Miller censured, Japan’s lackluster response is impermissible: “Japan does not comply with the minimum standards. We believe that there has been a tremendous gap in Japan that has a huge problem with slavery — particularly sex slavery — a tremendous gap between the size of the problem and the resources and efforts devoted to addressing the problem (Jordan,2004).” The Trafficking in Persons Report of 2010 indicates that the men of South Korea create demand for child sex tourism in their surrounding countries. Technology such as the internet has helped increase accessibility of child sex tourism in the Republic of Korea. Some South Korean men arrange for children from the Philippines, Thailand, and China as sources of sex (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2010). Prostitution in South Korea is a strictly controlled illegal industry, but according to The Korea Women’s development Institute, the sex trade in Korea was estimated to amount to 14 trillion Korean won ($13 billion) in 2007, roughly 1.6 percent of the nation’sgross domestic product. The number of prostitutes dropped by 18 percent to 269,000 during the same period. The sex trade involved some 94 million transactions in 2007, down from 170 million in 2002. The amount of money traded for prostitution was over 14 trillion won, much less than 24 trillion won in 2002 (Prostitution in South Korea, 2010). In 2003, the Korean Institute of Criminology announced that 260,000 women, or 1 of 25 of young Korean women, may be engaged in the sex industry. However, the Korean Feminist Association alleged that from 514,000 to 1.2 million Korean women participate in the prostitution industry. In addition, a similar report by the Institute noted that 20% of men in their 20s pay for sex at least four times a month, with 358,000 visiting prostitutes daily (Stiephensoun, 2010).
This chapter summarizes and explains the methods used in the research which includes its design, setting and treatment of data. 3.1Research Design
The research design used for this study is the descriptive-comparative design. The researcher employed a descriptive type of research using books and reliable online sources. This paper also employs a comparative analysis between the two countries being studied.
This comparative analysis study focuses in two countries namely: Japan and South Korea. Both countries are located in Asia. The two countries have certain distinction in economic status but both are considered as two of the countries in Asia that has a high rate of child prostitution.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, People’s Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The country is of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku.
Japan has the world’s tenth-largest population, with about 127 million people. South Korea is located on the southern half of the Korean peninsula and lies in a temperate climate region with a predominantly mountainous terrain. It is neighbor to China to the west, Japan to the east and North Korea to the north. Its capital, Seoul, is the second largest metropolitan city in the world. South Korea has a population of over 48 million, making it the third most densely populated country in the world after Bangladesh and Taiwan.
3.3 Data Gathering Procedures
The method used in data gathering was mainly book searching and online surfing. The data being gathered by the researcher are books with ISBN, books in PDF form with an author and websites form the internet, published on 2000-2011. Research was done from the month of July 2011-August 2012.
3.4 Treatment of Data
The researcher purely gathered data from printed books, pdfs, e-books and online source. This research paper is a comparative study, has a qualitative presentation of data and descriptive type of analysis.
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
This chapter will discuss the condition of child prostitution problem in Japan and South Korea, identify and differentiate the strategies they are using to address and solve this problem. Furthermore, this chapter attempts to stress some analysis on child prostitution of the ahead mentioned countries. The discussions will be classified according to certain topics. 4.1Primary Causes of Child prostitution The principal cause of child prostitution is poverty, however extreme poverty isn’t a reason in itself, it operates in function of the imposition of other factors such as; economic, social and ethnic despair, discrimination against women and girls, massive urbanization, disintegration of the family and of traditional community systems, ignorance on the part of the majority of parents, commercialization of the status of individuals and more (How to fight the prostitution of minors, 2001). Japan, known to be one of the most developed countries is a destination place for trafficking women and children for sexual purposes. Children from Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand are being transported to Japan to work as sex slaves
(http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/japan) July 29,2011. In the other side, South Korea has also become a source, transit and destination country for women trafficked for sexual purposes from China, the Philippines, Russia and Thailand; it also experiences internal trafficking of Korean children. South Korean children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation in the United States, Japan, Hong Kong, Guam, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Western Europe (Lee, 2005). Poverty is being identified as one of the major factors of child prostitution between countries. Japan and South Korea, both being considered as developed countries was more of being receiving regions in terms of child prostitution. Children mainly females mostly from neighboring developing countries such as Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and etc. are being brought to Japan to work in different entertainment bars.
A very common factor other than poverty that makes child prostitution prevalent nowadays is the presence of internet which is very accessible anywhere and anytime. Thousand of sites catering sexual services from women and children are found to be growing rapidly creating a very harmful dynamic industry that contributes to the big problem both countries are facing. 4.2Different Forms of Child prostitution In Japan, matchmaking or dating websites have become a well-known channel for commercial sexual exploitation of children in Japan. Many underage Japanese schoolgirls fall prey to ‘enjokosai’ (‘compensated dating’) by using ‘deaikei’ websites: through which they can make their contact details available, and use pagers, computers and mobile phones to arrange ‘dates’ with customers who are older and often married. Research has shown that many such girls do not engage in ‘enjokosai’ out of poverty, but rather to be able to purchase brand name clothes, bags, shoes, mobile phones, etc., which, according to them, boosts their self-esteem. They often come from dysfunctional families or experience problems at school (Liddy,2006).
The form of child prostitution in Japan differs from that found in other East Asian countries since poverty is not only the overriding factor. Child pornography is a notable problem. Japan is the most biggest producer of pornography in the world and the Parliament had refused a law banning the production of child pornography, citing “business reasons” (Antaseeda,1998). According to the Asia Pacific Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in Asia in 1996 the sex industry accounts for 1% of the Gross National Product and equals the defense budget in Japan. If matchmaking and pornographic websites are proven to be popular in Japan, in South Korea Saunas and Tea Houses are the main places of child prostitution.
Serious intention to solve child prostitution should have banned all the pornographic sites and matchmaking dating sites long time ago. Conducting symposiums to teachers and parents in order to monitor the daily internet content their child or student had been grasping is a must. They could filter those sites with sexually suggestive content. Entertainment bars, saunas and tea houses that cater sex trade should be raided regularly by assigned proper government agencies. The biggest problem is that the business men that run this sex trade around the country are also the people behind the powerful illegal groups within Japan and South Korea. Even regular government police should be active enough to know and act when they notice something illegal going on when they do rounds on places at night. There are many ways to solve child prostitution; it just has to entail sincerity in implementation and consistency in acting against the problem.
4.3Laws and Protocols to fight Child prostitution
In Japan, Law Punishing Acts Related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and for Protecting Children and its Supplementary Provision, 1999, 90 revised in 2004.Articles 4 to 7 punish acts related to child prostitution and child pornography. Trafficking of children for prostitution or pornography is punished under Article 8 with one to ten years’ imprisonment (Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Japan,1999). In 2006, the Internet Association Japan, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, the National Police Agency and information technology (IT) experts collaborated to draft guidelines on operating a hotline. The Internet Hotline Centre provides the public the opportunity to report illegal or harmful information found on the internet (Internet Association Japan, 2006). Japanese law now prohibits engaging in, facilitating, and/or soliciting the prostitution of a child; consistent with international law, a child is defined as a person under 18 years of age.(Law on Punishing Acts related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and on Protecting Children, 1999). According to the 2003 Deai Kei Site Regulation Law,40 minors are prohibited from accessing ‘deai-kei’ websites (matchmaking websites that facilitate prostitution of children), however no penalties apply.
The adults who send communications for this purpose are fined, up to one million yen (approx. US$8,550). Children are usually referred to a Family Court for counselling and protective measures, according to the provisions of the Juvenile Law. After the Deai Kei Site Regulation Law was enacted, access to the ‘deai-kei’ websites and obvious calls for compensated dating, especially those made by children, were drastically reduced for a while; but more disguised soliciting calls have appeared since (Ikemura,2005). A Cybercrime Task Force division was established in 2004 to improve action against online child pornography and online crime. Working in cooperation with the Office for Juvenile Protection, the Task Force acts as the contact point for international cooperation, advises the local police on investigations, prepares draft laws/amendments and policies on information technologies security and raises public awareness on the issue (National Police Agency of Japan,2005).
In Korea, child protection issues are handled by the National Youth Commission, which has set up a number of committees to coordinate action against CSEC( Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children), comprising both government agencies and NGOs. An example is the Committee on Combating the Sexual Exploitation of Children. In South Korea, many NGOs working on children’s rights rely on state funding to operate and their financial dependence on the government has prevented them from engaging in a more critical dialogue regarding the actions that need to be taken. In 2004, The South Korean government passed an anti-prostitution law, prohibition of prostitution in South Korea, made it illegal to buy or sell women. South Korea brought in a tough anti-prostitution law in 2004, punishing clients with fines and throwing pimps in prison. In 2007, courts prosecuted 35,000 clients, 2.5 times higher than the number of those who were caught buying sex in 2003 (Stiephensoun, 2010).
South Korea developed a National Plan of Action on Children, which is part of the Five-Year Social and Economic Development Plan (1998–2002)12 and the Five-Year Basic Plan forYouth Protection (2002–2006), which tackles crimes against children, including commercial sexual exploitation(National Youth Commission,2005). In March 2004, the Task Force for the Elimination of Prostitution completed the Sex Trafficking Prevention Plan, which includes measures to protect the rights of victims of forced prostitution and to tackle, through various routes, the facilitation of prostitution (for instance, through the use of the Internet and mobile phones).
The Task Force introduced the‘John School’ system, where men who have solicited prostitutes (or are suspected of having done so) participate in rehabilitation programmes instead of receiving a criminal sentence (Jeong, Bong-Hyup,2005). The Illegal and Harmful Contents Report Centre – an independent legal institution that deliberates on reported illegal and harmful Internet content – cooperates with the National Police Agency, National Youth Commission, NGOs, Internet service providers and foreign organizations (Internet 119 Website, 2005). The Republic of Korea ratified the Act on Protection of Youth from Sexual Exploitation. This law defines “youth exploited obscene materials” as forms of pictures, such as film images, video, computer, or other communications media “with the appearance of youth,” and including sexual acts (The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,2006)
Both countries have successfully formulated series of laws and protocols in order to act against rampant child prostitution. Japan and South Korea together with its government and non-governmental offices conducted successful conferences in order to draft laws that would possibly cure the problem on child prostitution. Looking into the deeper perspective, identifying the problem and formulating a plan on how to solve a certain social and economic issue are only the first steps to the real fight against child prostitution. Even a particular country formulated thousands of polices for a social or economic problem, if none of those polices or laws was implemented in an effective way then it would waste the whole effort laid to create those policies.
Hence, the success of formulated laws depends not on the number of laws being formulated but on how it is truly and effectively implemented and the effects on those policies in a certain country or society. Japan made its serious efforts of trying to eradicate child prostitution by raising public awareness by having symposiums and local and international conferences. Japan shared information and developed practical regional measures through the Bali Process, and hosted “The International Symposium on Measures to Prevent the Commercial and Sexual Exploitation of Children in Southeast Asia” in 2003 and many more. Japan integrated international cooperation by supporting projects under the United Nations that includes having such interagency collaborations and institutional arrangements with government organizations like the National Police Agency and Ministry of Foreign Affairs in conducting investigations and took administrative measures for them to more effectively trace illegal groups that runs bars and entertainment businesses on child prostitution. Japan also stressed out the protection of child prostitution victims by conducting a specific program which gives them shelter and protection. Government organizations contact private shelter to cater the needs of the victims and the government communicates with the country and return these victims to safe return in their respective areas (Paredes-Maceda,2006).
By the end of 2008, the Government of Japan had demonstrated increasing commitment to take effective action against trafficking and child prostitution in Japan as a destination country. A watershed was the adoption in December 2008 of the National Plan of Action against Trafficking and Child prostitution. Other announced measures, including the tightening of visa controls and support for the repatriation of victims, may also lead to more controls against trafficking and child prostitution and to improved protection and rehabilitation of victims in their countries of origin (Jordan,2008). According to the CATW Fact Book, Kyodo News in 1998 trafficking and child prostitution laws exist but not enforced.
In South Korea, government and non-government organizations as well went hand in hand in banning as much as possible all the pornographic sites. Even sites with suggestive content were banned. Though as recently as 2001 the government received low marks on the issue, in recent years the government has made significant strides in its enforcement efforts. Child trafficking was outlawed and penalties for prostitution increased; the 2004 Act on the Prevention of the Sex Trade and Protection of its Victims was passed, toughening penalties for traffickers, ending deportation of victims, and establishing a number of shelters for victims. As of 2005, there were 144 people serving jail time for human trafficking (Scofield, 2004).
Japan and Korea extended its efforts in solving child prostitution by collaborating through international organizations like the United Nations, as well as local governmental and nongovernmental agencies, but there had been a great discrepancy in the number of arrested individuals compared to the number of people that truly engages to the sex industry. The number of people that engages to child prostitution in Japan alone from entertainment bars, matchmaking websites to porn sites are counted as more than a hundred thousand employers with illegal child victims yet the number of individuals that are caught every year was only a little more than a hundred often times little less than a hundred, that also goes in Korea, there are a lot of people that is involve in child prostitution but the number of imprisoned employers are far little compared to the original number of involve individuals in child prostitution. In addition to that, as mentioned above Japan may have formulated laws and policies but it is rather suggested than imposed.
It means whether the citizens follow or not the said law they wouldn’t be directly responsible for it, thus, the laws wouldn’t serve its ultimate purpose on solving the problem of child prostitution. Based on the gathered data, the two countries differed on the level of how they implement laws. Korea is observed to be more empowered and strict in implementing laws against child prostitution. Meanwhile, Japan also considers a lot of factors in implementing the laws. Japan is known to promote more the idea of growing population in solution to its current trend of decreasing population within years. Hence, as a realization we must take into consideration first wider contributing factors on looking how a country face and manage certain problems. Both countries successfully decreased the rate of child prostitution within years with its respective programs and policies. They have enforced laws and strategies that is designed not only to solve a particular problem but also to consider other related factors. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
As shown by the data and information gathered, it shows that the main root of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea is poverty that leads to unavailability of quality education for children and the urge to work in order to provide their own families daily income for basic necessities in everyday living. In both countries, Japan and South Korea, children were taken from different countries like Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Russia, China and other countries to work on the sex trade industry. Most of them are illegally trafficked from different neighboring countries in order to seek work. The wide use of internet also is a considered as a growing concern in dealing with child prostitution. There are different forms of child prostitution; from pornographic sites and matchmaking sites, child pornography, exploitation through saunas, tea houses and entertainment bars. In Japan and South Korea, there are a lot of laws formulated and signed in order to battle against the problem regarding child prostitution. Governments collaborated with international organizations such as the United Nations as well as nongovernmental and governmental local offices to effectively implement the laws created that would solve the problem regarding child prostitution.
Japan and South Korea differs on the level on implementation on their policies. In Japan, the formulated laws are more suggested than imposed; while in South Korea they observe stricter rules and limitations entailed with higher penalties and responsibilities. Since South Korea was able to more effectively implement their policies compared to Japan their rate for child prostitution through years is going lower than of Japan. It might not solve immediately the problem regarding child prostitution but both countries had been successful in lowering their rates in child prostitution. Looking into the deeper perspective, efforts to eliminate child prostitution must entail proper implementation and assessment to provide an accurate picture of the situation so that effective policies and programs can be developed and appropriate solutions be enforced. In the other side, eliminating child prostitution may not solve the problem but may also lead to a more big dilemma as children may transfer to other activities that are just as harmful or perhaps more harmful work condition in order to still seek ways for living to be able to provide their own families basic necessities. 5.2Recommendations Having known through this study that proper implementation of laws plays a big role for a success of a policy.
The researcher would like to open some points for further study regarding with more appropriate laws be formulated in order to protect the interests and welfare of poor children who are always the victim of sex labor and also give way for a better procedure and methods in implementing such formulated laws for it to serve its ultimate purpose and since poverty is seen in this study as the primary cause of child prostitution the researcher would like to further suggest of creating or formulating programs in where the children or the youth would be appropriately given the equal chance to be given quality education for them to be informed with their own rights to avoid abuse. They should implement enforcement to continue to improve efforts against child trafficking, especially to strengthen their ability to identify child victims of trafficking in sexual exploitation and ensure investigation and prosecution of traffickers. Provide training to law enforcement, prosecutors and judges on the issue of commercial sexual exploitation. Hence, there would be a need to conduct further researches on child trafficking for sexual purposes to identify the scope of the problem, current trends and provide information on traffickers and at-risk groups or victims – this information will strengthen prevention and awareness. In addition, data collected should be disaggregated between children and adults and must include information on the child’s age, nationality and possible background information.
The Agenda for Action against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children provides a detailed framework and categories of actions to be taken by governments in partnership with civil society organizations and other relevant actors for combating commercial sexual crimes against children. Broadly, these actions are focused on: 1) Coordination and Cooperation; 2) Prevention; 3) Protection; 4) Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reintegration; and 5) Child Participation. The Agenda for Action is thus the formal and guiding structure used by governments that have adopted it and committed to work against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (National Women’s Education Centre, 2005). Consequently, child prostitution may be reduced if there would be changes in economic development that would raise family incomes and living standards, every state as much as possible must provide widespread, affordable, required and relevant education, formulation and proper implementation of anti- child prostitution laws and most of all the need to change the public attitude toward children that would elevate the view on the importance of educating the youth and giving also the importance of their individual rights for future generations to come.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 March 2016
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