1.1. Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites All 4 are different types of pathogens
Bacteria is a single celled organism that multiply by themselves. They lives within and on most living and nonliving things. The majority of bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial to the human body but some can cause infectious diseases. A bacterium usually affects one part of the body and doesn’t spread across or through the body. Bacterial infections are normally treated with a cause of antibiotics.
Viruses: are made up of genes and proteins that spread throughout the body by invading the body’s own cells so they can reproduce and multiply in the body. They use the body’s cells as a host because they are unable to multiply on their own. They are normally spread directly from human to human. Viruses can be very tough and there are not many effective medicines available for viral diseases.
There are currently 21 families of viruses known to cause disease in humans.
Fungi: like to grow in warm, moist places. Some fungi can be beneficial to us such as penicillin, but certain types of fungi can be harmful to our health. Like bacteria and viruses, some fungi can act as pathogens. Human fungal diseases can occur due to infection or fungal toxins. Symptoms for fungal diseases can be as common as itching, coughing, fever, wheezing, but they can also be as serious as meningitis or even death Parasites are organisms that use other organism for its survival. They draw nourishment and other needs from its host organism. Parasites that cause infection and disease are known as Pathogenic parasites
1.2. Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria: Ecoli/food poisoning, MRSA, CDIF, Sickness and diarrhea Viruses: Common cold, Influenza, Chicken pox, Cold sores, HIV Fungi: Athletes foot, Thrush, yeast infections, Ring Worm
Parasites: Tape worms, Scabies, Malaria
1.3 Describe what is meant by “infection” and “colonisation” An infection is an invasion of the body by pathogens i.e. Bacteria and viruses which can cause disease and infections Colonisation is when microorganisms live on or in a host organism but do not invade tissues or cause damage
1.4 Explain what is meant by “systemic infection” and “localised infection” A “localised infection” is an infection that is limited to a specific body part or region of the body A systemic infection is when the infection is spread throughout body and affects a number of different organs and tissues
1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection
•Not wearing provided personal protective clothing when dealing with personal care and bodily fluids •Not changing PPE clothing in-between dealing with service user’s personal care. •By walking out in to corridors in PPE clothing whilst in the middle of deal with personal care. •Not washing hands correctly
•Not disposing of solid and wet pads in the correct manner. .2.1 conditions needed for growth of microorganisms
Temperature this will be between 8-63 degrees cc this is also called the danger area as bacteria multiply very fast. You will also need food for the bacteria or parasites for feed on. Moisture is another key important fact that will make growth easier Time is another important areas as more time made available as other conditions remain constant makes it easy.
2.2 and 2.4 Infective agents enter the body through open skin, wounds, saliva, blood exchange, oral areas such as mouth, anus. the person infected gets in contact with an infected person and through the media listed and appropriate condition then multiplication will take place and that will lead to infection.
2.3 common sources of infection
• Patient as a source for a) Air borne
• Patient as a source b) Blood borne
• Sexually transmitted
• Direct contact
• Fecal /oral tansmission
• Employees eg MRSA transmission
• Animals as source of infection.
2.5 Poor hygiene is most important factor that will always make it likely for any infection to take place. Lack of hand washing, ensuring that we get appropriate treatment and to be contained in one area until we heal or doctor gives us clean bill of health.