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Wildlife sanctuaries of India

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 11 (2586 words)
Categories: India,Wildlife Sanctuaries
Downloads: 44
Views: 1106

India has over 441 animal sanctuaries, referred to as Wildlife sanctuaries (IUCN Category IV Protected Area). Among these, the 41 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary, e.g. Keoladeo National Park before attaining National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Sanctuary, like the tri-state National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the gharial.

Wildlife Sanctuary is a geographic territory within which the wildlife is reserved. It’s a place where animals are brought and are protected for the rest of their lives. Such an area is reserved by a private or a governmental organization. Such areas possess a fantastic range of wildlife species and therefore, attract the attention of a lot of people from all around the world. One of the major countries comprising of exclusive wildlife sanctuaries and attracting innumerable tourists from all around the globe is, India.

India boasts of many wildlife sanctuaries and they are its ideal showcase. Indian wildlife is really diverse ranging from beautiful peacocks, majestic tigers, to enormous elephants. Most of the chief states of India encompass these sanctuaries and commendably, some of these are also involved in the task of preserving and conserving the endangered animal species. Going with the facts and figures, there are 441 sanctuaries, 80 national parks, and 23 tiger reserves which have been set up across India with the direct involvement and active support of Indian Government.

In India, these wildlife reserves have become a hot spot for the tourists. People especially visit the country for witnessing the fascinating wildlife it holds. If you are a person driven by an adrenaline rush, then the Indian wildlife sanctuaries will provide you with much sought after excitement and thrill. Not only you will witness a diverse range of fauna and flora but you’ll be spellbound with the diversity in topography. These are not just perfect getaways for the wildlife enthusiasts but are a heaven for nature lovers as well.

Out of all the states, Kerala, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, and Orissa, have some of the best wildlife sanctuaries. In Kerala, there are Idduki Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Bird Sanctuary, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary and Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. In Karnataka, there is Nagarhole National Park where you can witness magnificent wildlife comprising of a gripping range of bird species. Sasangir Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat, The Nagarjunasagar Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh, Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary in Haryana and the Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary in Orissa are also definitely worth a visit.

If you have a suppressed desire to embark on Indian Wildlife tours and are wondering where to hunt for the authentic inputs, then you have just landed upon the right place! On our site, you will get all the information regarding wildlife sanctuaries of India and also the wildlife tour operators who will serve as a ready help. Maharashtra Wildlife Sanctuaries

Maharashtra is home to many wildlife sanctuaries and national parks. These national parks and sanctuaries are home to many rare species of flora and fauna. Thanks to the state government, these parks are well safeguarded and try to upgrade with every year to attract foreign and domestic tourists.

Modern amenities such as jeep rides, night safaris, library and audio-visual facilities, comfortable accommodation and efficient transport are also available at these parks at a nominal charge. Most of the sanctuaries and the park have lakes with serene beauty.

Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary, Tadoba National Park, Chikhaldhara, Dajipur, Bharmragarh Wild Life Sanctuary, Navegaon National Park, Tipeshwer, Bor Wildlife Sanctuary are the important sanctuaries in Maharashtra. Pench Jungle camp is a special accommodation facility available at the Pench National Park, which is located on the border of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Bhamragarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Bhamragarh Wildlife Sanctuary has many types of wild animals like leopard, jungle fowl, wild boar and sloth bear, barking deer, blue bull, peacock and flying squirrel. The entire area is covered with the moist deciduous mix forests. Gond-Madia tribes are the people who are residing in and around the Bhamragarh Wildlife Sanctuary.

They are still leading their primitive life, mainly depending on the forest for their day-to-day needs. The local dialect is Madia and Gondi. Hemalkasa Lok Biradari Project run by Dr Prakash Amte is the other place of interest around the sanctuary.

February to May is the best time to visit. Nagpur is the closest airport (370 km), while nearest railway station is Ballarpur (197 km). Nearest main bus stations are Aheri (102 km), Ballarpur and Chandrapur (212 kms).

Welcome to Bor Wildlife Sanctuary

Bor Wildlife Sanctuary comprising of 61.10 sq.km. came into existence vide Government of Maharashtra Notification No. WLP-1670/43126(a)-4, dt.27/11/1970. Bor Wildlife Sanctuary is situated along the Southern boundary of Nagpur district and Northern boundary of Wardha district of Maharashtra, and extends over an area 61.10 sq.km. excluding the reservoir. It represents the floral and faunal wealth of Satpuda-Maikal Landscape. Satpuda runs along the Northern boundary of Maharashtra from West to East and meets the Maikal Hill range which comes from Kanha. It was a game reserve which was subsequently declared as Wildlife Sanctuary in 1970 to conserve its rich biodiversity and the catchment value of Bor River whose sub basin is Wardha River and basin is Godavari River.

Bor Wildlife Sanctuary supports a dense population of Tiger and Panther which is comparable to Kahna and Pench in terms of animals/km2. Bor Wildlife Sanctuary derives its name from Bor River which meanders along the central portion of the sanctuary like serpants and divides the sanctuary in two parts. The Sanctuary area constitutes a unique Eco-system comprising a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the diverse and rich aquatic life and avi-fauna. It is also known for sites and places of natural scenic beauty, religious places like Shiva Temple at Khori-Khapa, Bruhaspati Temple at Chauki, Hanuman Temple at Khadki and Ganesh Temple at Kelzar. It is believed to be an important place of Mahabharata time. Location and Topography

It is located in isolated hill range in Wardha Valley in the foot hills of Satpuda, which forms the catchments of Bor River. The Bor River is perennial inside the Sanctuary. The Nallah beds gets dry during summer forming water pools known as doh which serve as water holes for the wild animals. There is a reservoir at Bor formed artificially due to construction of dam at Bordharan. Best Time To Visit Bor Sanctuary

Eco tourism season starts from 1st October to 16th June and the Sanctuary remains closed for monsoon from 16th June to 30th September each year.

Eco-Tourism

One Eco-tourism centre is functional at Balodyan in Bor Wildlife Sanctuary. * Accommodation :- 4 mougli huts(Capacity 2+2 in each hut) * Reception Center :- 1 Double unit building with residential facility. * Interpretation Centre :- 1 No.

* Canteen :- 1 No. – 24 persons seating Capacity * Conference Hall :- open hall to seat 100 persons(under renovation)

The Gugumal National Park, Amravati, Maharshtra is one of the most well known national parks in the state of Maharashtra. Maharashtra is home to a wide variety of rare animals and birds, including the tiger, crocodile, bison, gawa, neelgai, wild deer, sambar and a host of migratory birds. There are numerous wildlife reserves in the state, which offer wonderful opportunities to watch rich and diverse wildlife amid natural settings.

The Gugamal National Park was built in 1974, and the park spreads over an area of about 1673.93 square kilometers. Located in Chikhaldara and Dharni Tehsils of Amaravati District in the Satpura Hills of Maharshtra, Gugamal is famous as one of the last remaining habitats of the Indian tiger species in Maharashtra.

The Melghat Tiger Reserve, of which the Gugamal National Park, forms the core part, came to be designated as a Sanctuary in 1975, in view of the ecological, floral and faunal significance of the region.

The forest in rugged and hilly area of Melghat is typical Southern dry deciduous forest. There are 750 species of plants in the area. There are 90 tree species, 66 shrub species, 316 herb species, 56 climbers, 23 sedge species and 99 grass species. Approximately 50-75 more species have been identified and several more are expected to identify in the future at the Melghat Tiger Preserve.

Tectona grandis, Ain, Tiwas, Aola, Lendia, Dhawada, Kusum are the important tree species. Bamboo and Teak is widely spread in the forests. The area is rich in medicinal plants.

Fauna :

The area is rich in wild mammals including Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Jackal, Hyena, Chausinga, Sambar (largest Deer on earth) Gaur, Barking Deer, Ratel, Flying squirrel, Cheetal (type of Deer), Nilgai, Wild Boar, Langur, Rhesus Monkey, and Macaque. Also found here are 25 types of fishes and many varieties of butterflies.

Crocodiles were re-introduced in a systematic manner in March 1990 and February 1991 in Siddu Kund in Gadga river near Dhakna and Hathikund in the Dolar river in the Gugamal National Park.

The best season for visiting the park is from March to June.
Melghat Tiger Reserve

Melghat Tiger Reserve spreads over 1597 sq.kms. of tropical dry deciduous forest with 648 species of flora, many species of mammals, 19 fishes, 15 snakes, 5 lizards, 250 birds and 4 turtle/tortoise species. The core area is 308 sq.kms. The 1989 census reveals an estimated population of 77 tigers. There are 59 villages in the area with 17,138 people and 21,677 cattle. 110 sq. kms. is under cultivation. The Korku tribals form a large percentage of the population. Their life is compatible with the forest and they indulge in small game poaching and fishing for their own consumption.

The field director of the Park only controls 361 sq.kms. of the area and the remaining area has an overlapping jurisdiction with the territorial forest division of East, West and South Melghat. There is a large effort after 20 years of Project Tiger to bring the area under unitary control. The core is well protected without any villages. The grazing pressures are not high and only 40,000 on the fringe areas. Through the flow of funds and equipment, local poaching has been curbed, although there have been 2 cases of tiger poaching in 1990-1991. Till 1988 timber extraction to the tune of 30 crores annually was exploited. This is said to have stopped since 1989 and degraded areas have had a chance to recoup. Through ecological development pressures that mount from the buffer to the core will be reduced.

Tourist management, interpretation and other facilities are managed by Project Tiger and nature education of school children and tribals is underway. It appears that Melghat is an excellent flagship of Project Tiger for the management of tourism and education to the people. There is no tourism activity in the Core area. The Park authorities feel that there is a deficit in the staff required to manage the reserve. Much more work has to be done to eliminate the hazard of fires. Water is a limiting factor and much has to be done to alleviate the situation. There is a veterinary cell but yet to be fully operational. Most of the research work has started in 1989 and there is some data being collected. The research laboratory is slowly developing and requires much more improvement.

On the side of documentation there has been some excellent work done. An annotated bibliography on tigers has been compiled which encompasses all tiger literature over the centuries. A compilation of the ethno-botanical species of flora,and their uses has also been completed. There is a plan to relocate 6 villages in the fringe. The damage to crops in these areas by wild animals is alarming. The first case of man eating also occurred in 1992.

It appears from census figures that this Tiger Reserve has reached its optimum capacity to hold tigers. In fact prey species are said to be declining at a very rapid rate especially spotted deer and wild boar. Tigers prey on 250 cattle annually revealing their dependence on livestock that must roam this forest. An attempt is being made to restock the forest with prey though such a process could be questionable. The whole predator prey base requires detailed scientific research, in order to understand the problems. Unitary control by the field director of the core and buffer is essential. Through this process the habitat in the buffer can be developed and livestock predation reduced. Eco-development approaches for the future will be vital in creating a harmony between man and forest, in this tiger habitat.

Navegaon National Park

Location: Navegoan, Gondia, Maharashtra
Area: 135-sq-km

Consists of: A Deer Park, An Aviary, Three Beautifully Landscaped Gardens, And Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary Best Time To Visit: April To May The Navegaon National Park located in Navegoan, Gondia is one of the most popular forest resorts in the Vidarbha region. The Park is spread over an area of 135 sq kms. A picturesque lake with crystal clear water, stretching over an area of 11 sq. kms is set in the midst of hill ranges and can be approached through a series of winding trails. Strategically located, watch towers enable the visitor to Navegaon to catch a glimpse of the region’s varied wildlife. It consists of a deer park, an aviary and three beautifully landscaped gardens. Legend of Navegaon Lake : There is an interesting legend about Navegaon Lake. Kolu Patel Kohli created the lake at the beginning of the 18th century. He is now defined as “Kolasur Deo” and his shrine is on one of the peaks surrounding the lake. The seven peaks surrounding the lake are known as the “Sat Bahini” or seven sisters.

It is believed that these deities helped Kolu in building the lake. On the fringe of the lake is an idol of Hanuman, the deity of strength, whose feet are said to go below the embankment. The island in the middle of the lake is known as “Maldonger” and was used by the villagers as a refuge from the marauding ‘Pindaris’ (A tribe of professional robbers). The area around the lake is known as the Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, in memory of the noted ornithologist. Best time to visit this sanctuary is between October to June and every winter, the Navegaon Lake becomes the home to huge flocks of migrating ducks and the misty winter mornings are characterized by their loud calls. Flora : The forest is typical Southern mixed dry deciduous forest. The main species are Teak, Haldu, Jamun, Kawat, Mahua, Ain, Bhel and Bhor, etc.

Avifauna : Almost 60% of all bird species recorded in Maharashtra are visible at Navegaon. The experience and the excitement of having spotted the scarlet minivet, a paradise fly catcher or the sapphire blue flash of a kingfisher skimming the surface of the lake for fish is quite out of the world. ther Attractions : One can also join the Jungle Safari and stroll through the beautiful forest, crossing paths with Leopards, Sloth Bears, Gaurs, Sambars, Chitals and Langoors. Staying in the unique treetop house, riding a power or sailboat on the lake, are also some thrilling pastimes one can enjoy over here. Nearly 50,000 tourists visit this tourist complex annually. Nearby Attractions : Places of interest around the national park are Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary (60 km), Itiadoh Dam (20-km), Tibetan Camp at Gothangaon (15 km) and Pratapgad (15 km).

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Wildlife sanctuaries of India. (2016, Dec 17). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/wildlife-sanctuaries-of-india-essay

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