Booker T. Washington was an educator and activist, who was recommended as headmaster at a new school by Samuel Armstrong and in that was put in charge of the Tuskegee Negro Normal Institute. Washington became nationally known following a publicized speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta in 1895, where he expressed his attitude toward the w whites’ worries of blacks demanding equality. Quotes in his speech caused black radicals to without question refer to this speech as the “Atlanta Compromise”.
From this speech, Washington gets disapproved by a black man that feels that African Americans are able to perform better than Washington thinks that they can. He also gets questioned for his insinuation that Whites and Blacks are unequal, which in makes it seem as though Whites will look at African Americans as 2nd class citizens. Washington largely relied on the concept of blacks being able to accept segregation and the denial of voting rights; this also caused Washington to deny the founding of the NAACP.
Booker’s stand for African Americans’ civil rights and his push for hard work being the only path to equality and success were crucial. He also pushed in racial improvement and economic empowerment through vocational training. In such cases as Giles vs. Harris, regardless of Washington’s opposition of the attainment of civil rights in the courtroom, Washington still financially supported such legal battles as this one. He had many accomplishments, among those were him being the first African American to have his portrait on a postage stamp, him also becoming the first African American to be recognized on a U.
S. coin, along with being the founder of the National Business League. Booker T. Washington was characterized as the most prominent black leader, but his fellow activist, W.E.B. Du Bois became widely influential and was said to have more impact on black audiences. W.E.B. DuBois was the first African American to earn a PhD at Harvard. DuBois backed Wilson during his presidential term and he also supported Americans’ participation in the 1st World War.
To African Americans, this was mainly about patriotism and being able to your worthy. DuBois supported war efforts and even went as far as trying to obtain a job in military intelligence, in which he was denied. In 1905, Du Bois was one of the founders and leaders of the Niagara Movement, which was an early civil rights group considered radical at the time. After six years, the Niagara Movement had a biracial membership that was absorbed into the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. DuBois was also a founding member of this association and the NAACP’s journal, The Crisis, which he founded, wrote and edited. After writing for 25 years, DuBois resigned in 1934. After resigning, he established the scholars review of race and culture, called the Phylon. In continuing his work, he had various studies of African American sociology, which include The Encyclopedia of the Negro. On the political front, he voiced his opinion of criticizing unequal rights and anti-Semitism.
Dubois took several trips to the Soviet Union; there he began to feel an understanding of the ideologies of Philosopher Karl Marx and economist Friedrich Engels. In this moment of understanding, he thought he found logic whereas all people could be treated equally. Another big accomplishment of Dubois was his publishing of 16 nonfiction books, which marked the earliest sociological studies of African Americans. In the 1920’s, DuBois began to have constant, public controversies with Marcus Garvey, who was also another prominent African American leader. They were in dispute over Garvey’s outlook of a radical separatist’s perspective. Marcus Garvey was an activist whom struggled to obtain independence from his British Empire, and in that deiced to come to the U.S. from the influencing of ideas from Booker T. Washington. In 1905, Garvey was fired as a printer for going with pro-labor activity and for supporting strikers who were fighting for better working conditions and more money.
Following this incident, Garvey took a yearlong tour, where he analyzed the working conditions of other places. Garvey emphasizes the organizing of people’s own social and economic problems. On that tour, he organized the first branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and also began publishing a journal that advertised his African nationalist ideas. UNIA was widely accepted and 2 years after being originally organized, there were over 30 branches and over 2 million members. After traveling to the U.S., Garvey held meetings, called Liberty Hall that discussed a combination of politics and religion. Garvey was very ceremonial and a Christian. Garvey also lobbied against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and the denial of voting rights and racial discrimination.
Following his success of UNIA, Garvey assembled the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company and after he was elected president of Africa. After his assemble of the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company ran out of money, he became a broke business man. He was arrested shortly after for fraud and after only serving half of his 5 years sentence, he was deported back to Jamaica. Upon his return, he established the People’s Political Party and a daily newspaper called the Black Man. The publishing of an evening newspaper was unsuccessful, as so was his magazine, after his failed attempts, Garvey began an organization that he had hopes of raising money to make job opportunities for poor rural people in Jamaica.
Although these men had different outlooks on situations, Marcus Garvey did have a “relationship” with Booker T. Washington and looked up to him because of Washington’s theory of self-help and organizing education and increasing skill set. In conclusion, all three of these men made many accomplishments. Although their tactics were all different, they still set out to make a difference. Their deeds not go unnoticed and were actually very profound.
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