Instruction will begin by discussing the differences between fictional and non-fictional books; Students will read the non-fiction book “What If You Had Animal Teeth” by Sandra Markle. This book is filled with fun and interesting facts on animal’s different teeth. The book will be read in its entirety engaging students and creating interest.
Learning objectives will be introduced using chart paper
Teacher will display a premade chart that describes what nonfiction is. Read the definition aloud as students track with their eyes. Create a new chart and list nonfiction characteristics that can be found in a book and discuss their purpose. Look through nonfiction books to see specific examples of the nonfiction characteristics. Inform students that we will now go back and review the book “What If You Had Animal Teeth” and we will consider what facts we are given.
Go to the first page, read the sentence and ask students to do a think/pair/share. Think: What facts are given? Discuss with your group. Prompt students to share out with the whole class. Continue with each page. Tell students that they get to practice finding more facts by reading other nonfiction animal books. Give students a list of nonfiction books to choose from.
Generate a discussion of what nonfiction means. Guide student discussion to the idea that we will research facts and create our own nonfiction booklet to help readers understand important information of our chosen topic.
Give students the option of choosing 1 out of 4 animals to research and write about. Point out how when writing nonfiction material, you can use headings to help break up important information that you want readers to understand about the topic. Using ELMO (document camera), display worksheet “The Working Tools of Insects”. “We are going to look at the top of page. Does anyone remember what we call this?” Check for student understanding. “It is the heading.” Read aloud the heading found at the top of the page while students track with their eyes. Ask students to consider what the material is going to be based on the heading. “What do you think this story is going to be about based on what the heading is?
I know that Insects don’t use tools like hammers or screwdrivers, so what else can tools mean?” Illicit responses such as “their antenna, their stingers, etc.” Relay to students that animals have tools too. “Birds can use their beaks to gather food. Porcupines can use their quills to protect them against predators.” Tell students that they will now have the opportunity to create their own fact booklet. Show students a premade example of the “fact booklet” that they will be creating. Explain to students what the purpose of nonfiction writing is. “Nonfiction writing is used to teach people information about something. When writing nonfiction we need to decide on what the most important information is that we should include in the writing.”
Tell students that before writing nonfiction, they should ask themselves “What information will help the reader to understand the topic?” Ask students to brainstorm and share with their group by reviewing the reading materials of the chosen topic to find important information that they want to include. Show the students an example of how their first page in their fact booklet might look like. “I will choose to write facts about dogs. What important information about dogs do I want my readers to know? I want my readers to know about the physical features of dogs for those readers who might not be familiar with them.” Write down a fact on the first page.
Tell students that it is also important to have illustrations to help readers connect the pictures to the words, and understand what they are reading. Draw a picture above the facts on the first page. Students will now create their own fact booklet. Pass out construction paper. Have students fold paper in half, creating 12 pages altogether. Have them staple the pages to create a book. On the first page, have students write down their information on the bottom half of the page. On the top half of the page, have students draw a picture illustrating the facts that they have written. Have students include headings for each new fact that they are including.
Gather students in whole group to debrief. Ask students to explain what nonfiction means. Ask them to explain the difference between fiction and nonfiction. (Guide students to understand that nonfiction is used to give readers an understanding of a topic). Call on several students to share one fact that they have created in their fact booklet. This will give the teacher a good idea of how well students understand nonfiction.
The influx of English Language Learners in U.S. educational school systems is on the rise. With this increase, our educators are feeling the pressure of finding a proper balance to support our linguistically diverse students through language and content instruction, allowing them to integrate within school and their community with ease. Educators can meet the immense and distinct needs of all students by integrating different educational instruction methods in their lesson planning. This paper will discuss five important components that should be included in educational instructional strategies for ELL learners and classrooms: comprehensible input, ongoing, specific, and immediate feedback, grouping structures and techniques, building background and vocabulary development, and student engagement.
The SIOP lesson plan that can be found above is a detailed summary of a conceivable fourth grade lesson that can be directed in an ELL comprehensive classroom. This lesson encompasses instructional strategies used to accommodate ELLs throughout class instruction. The Arizona State Standards used to support the components of the SIOP model can also be recognized in this lesson. Addressed in the SIOP lesson is the students’ ability to show awareness and understanding of non-fictional works, their ability to recognize the relationship between fiction and non-fiction, and their ability to recognize differences in the structure and components of non-fiction work by clarifying what nonfiction works are, as well as them capably using specific actions, emotions, or conditions that are basic to specific content (Center for Applied Linguistics, 2013).
This lesson includes different instructional practices used with the students including partnering up and whole group discussion. These strategies were utilized to gain a clear and confident understanding of non-fictional structures of writing. The goal of the SIOP lesson plan is to engage students in collaboration with each other so that they can identify why nonfiction is an important part of reading and writing. While using the think/pair/share method, learners will acquire the ability to recognize nonfiction writing and compare it to fictional works. Both language and content objectives have been aligned with state standards, influencing the lesson plan. The language objectives used in this lesson include collaboration with partners and as a class, recognize significant information to a topic, create a structured informational book, and use nonfictional structures of writing.
The content objectives include effective collaboration, convey clear ideas and information through informative writing, using appropriate writing format, develop work with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic, and use appropriate words that demonstrate an understanding of the lesson in its entirety. The instructional strategies that were used in this lesson could be applied to all learners. Learners were given the chance to hold whole group discussion, think/pair/share, have paired peer discussion, and make comparisons. ELLs were able to build background by the inclusion of meaningful activities, collaboration, tactics, repetition, and response used in this lesson. This lesson also provided a scaffolding effect which can endorse high levels of success for second language acquisition.
It is critical to an Ell’s growth and development that comprehensible input be integrated within each lesson. Comprehensible input can be described as the ability for students to understand what is being said and presented to them (Campbell & Mailman, 2013). With the use of oral demonstration and context or visual cues being incorporated into numerous methods in instructional teachings, comprehensible input can be attained. It is also important for educators to challenge their students by requesting that they explain what is expected of them. These practices can help heighten a learner’s familiarity and understanding of English. Another important element used in ELL instruction and which can be applied to all learners is feedback. Feedback is given to students to provide them with an awareness of their strengths and what improvements are needed to improve their performance. An educator can deliver feedback orally or through non-verbal communication.
It is important to note that feedback is not a one-way communication, but rather an interaction between an educator and learner (McKimm). An attentive teacher recognizes the importance in instantaneous, detailed, and continuous feedback to help build student’s assurance in their own capabilities. This self-confidence can help students extend it to their communicative skills, evaluate their achievements and continue to improve on their work. Educators must ensure that all feedback is remedial, appropriate and applies to the benchmarks given. Educators must also remember that is it not important in the amount of mistakes a student makes. The true value is in the amount of instructional information that a student learns and understands. Grouping structures and methods are also used by educators to endorse collaboration and learning.
By grouping students who have strong, developed English language skills with students whose English language skills are still emerging, students have had higher success rates while learning the English language (Albertazzi, Azofeifa, & Serrani, 2013). Integrating ELL and non-ELL students gives all students the opportunity to develop and continue to build vocabulary, as well as expand their skills in understanding, listening and speaking. Collaborating with one another can be an equally powerful teaching strategy as any other method of teaching done by educators. Building background and vocabulary development is another instructional strategy used in ELL classrooms to help develop innovative approaches that familiarize ELLs to new language(Campbell & Mailman, 2013).
This strategy also reinforces language meanings, a crucial step to English language development. By making use of key ideas that emphasize reading, writing, and vocabulary as well as articulation and word enunciation strategies, teachers can support ELLs in developing their vocabulary so that they learn English proficiently. Lastly, student engagement is an equally important task in ELL instruction. Keeping students active and engaged while teaching a subject that is complex can be difficult.
By using various strategies such as acknowledging students interests, providing additional materials, and requesting students to bring in personal motivators to learning English, such as letters from pen pals or applications for sports sign ups, teachers can help keep students actively engaged and participating in educational instruction. Acquiring a second language can be a challenging task for ELL students. Educators are responsible for considering the dynamics of English language acquisition and must take strategic steps in engaging and instructing ELL students. If educators implemented each of the components mentioned throughout this paper by integrating them into their teaching, all students will have the opportunity to receive exceptional learning experiences.
Albertazzi, S., Azofeifa, M.,& Serrani, G. (2013) Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved on November 14, 2013 from http://www.slideshare.net/milaazofeifa/krashens-theory-on-second-language-acquisition
Campbell, A. & Mailman, L. (2013). Theories of Language Development. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://languagedevelopment.tripod.com/id15.html
The Arizona K-12 Academic Standards. English Language Learners. (n.d.).
The Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved November 14, 2013 from http://www.azed.gov/english-language-learners/elps/forms/ CAL SIOP. (2013).
What is the SIOP Model. Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.cal.org/siop/about/index.html
McKimm, J. (n.d.). What is Feedback. Retrieved from http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/feedback/what-is-feedback