Translation procedures by zakhir Essay
Translation procedures by zakhir
Adaptation In adaptation, the translator works on changing the content and the form of the ST in a way that conforms to the rules of the language and culture in the TL community. In general, this procedure is used as an effective way to deal with culturally-bound words/expressions, metaphors and images in translation. That is, the translator resorts to rewriting the SLT according to the characteristics of the TLT. Monia Bayar (2007) argues that adaptation is based on three main procedures: cultural substitution, paraphrase and omission.
Cultural substitution refers to the case where the translator uses equivalent words that are ready-made in the TL, and serve the same goal as those of the SL. In other words, the translator substitutes cultural words of the SL by cultural words of the TL. An example of cultural substitution is clearly seen in the translation of these proverbs: Tel pere, tel fils – ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????. She is innocent as an egg – elle est innocente comme un agneau. In these two examples, we notice that the translators substitute the STs by expressions which are culturally specific in the TL.
For instance, the last example uses the term ‘agneau’ as a cultural equivalent for the word ‘egg’, since the latter conveys a bad connotation, which is imbecility, as in the example “ne fait pas l’oeuf” = “ne fait pas l’imbecile” (G. Hardin & C. Picot, 1990).  Yet, if the translator cannot find a cultural specific expression that substitutes the cultural expression of the SL, he should resort to paraphrase. Paraphrase as another procedure of adaptation aims to surpass all cultural barriers that the ST may present. This procedure is based on explanations, additions and change in words order.
For instance, the English metaphor “he is a ship without compass” has no cultural equivalent expression in Arabic, thus, the saying could be translated as “??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? “. Actually, paraphrase is not only used in culturally-bound texts, but also in poor written and anonymous texts, which show omissions (Newmark, 1988).  Besides, the translator should not use paraphrase in all the parts of the text unless necessary, otherwise his translation would be judged as different from the original. Omission means dropping a word or words from the SLT while translating.
This procedure can be the outcome of the cultural clashes that exist between the SL and the TL. In fact, it is in subtitling translation where omission attains its peak in use. The translator omits words that do not have equivalents in the TT, or that may raise the hostility of the receptor. For example, Arab translators usually omit English taboo words such as ‘fuck off’ and ‘shit’, while translating films into Arabic, just for the sake of respecting the Arab receptors, who may not tolerate the use of these words because of their culture.
The process is also resorted to when translating from Moroccan Arabic into English: MA: /3annaq SaHbo wmsaw bzuz lyid flyid/. Eng: He held his boy friend tightly and went together. Here, we notice that the translator omits the Arabic words /lyid flyid/, ‘hand in hand’, since this act misleads English receptors who may mistaken the friends of being homosexuals, instead of considering the act as an ordinary one.
In short, undoubtedly, adaptation, as one of the most intricate procedures of translation, enhances the readability of the TT in a way that helps receptors comprehend the ST ideas, images, metaphors and culture through their own language and culture. Cultural substitution, paraphrase and omission offer various possibilities for translators. However, the latter two types are still the subject of much debate, especially for those who defend the idea of fidelity in translation.