This chapter presents a brief summary of the research from the very beginning to end of the research. As the final part of the study report, this chapter provides a synopsis of the study. The chapter also outlines key implications and areas for actions to take forward in policy and future study.
The changing role of governments globally, to involve citizens so as to resolve problems and innovate utility activities, has realized to enable government to adapt to quick decision driven Big Data technology.
The sources of data from crowd sourcing, internet of things, public private partnership programs, social network activities and sharing of data has boosted the compulsion of this Big Data system. Following the suit of developing and developed countries, the Nepalese government service delivery can be made efficient and transparent by introducing Big Data projects. Nepal is transforming governmental systems into digital systems. The government of Nepal has encouraged the growth of ICT index by incorporating some ICT infrastructure projects since the last few years.
Broadband backbone projects and reach of rural areas are being prioritized along with the hype of mobile penetration with speed focused data services. Nepal has to benefit and seek the data values. Big Data technologies can be adopted to solve many of the issues faced in the e-governmental sectors. With the adoption of Big Data, the researcher believes that trust that is lacking in the Nepal political scenario will be improved. Additionally, the total economy with the social benefit can be boosted by the benefits of this system in e-government.
The Strategic Development Agenda of Nepal aims to minimize poverty by 2030 in Nepal. The lower income generating households have a trend to generate income from overseas employment. Remittance fetched from this source of income has brought about upliftment of social and economic status of the country. More than 1700 men and women leave for foreign jobs daily, besides migrants who travel illegally and who go to India for jobs. Though this part of the income contributes nearly 30% of the national GDP, this part of e-governance delivery is not ambitious to gain trust from the user sides. Observation through the governmental labour migration portal does not promise an efficient service delivery regarding the information, transparency, history and related processes. The gaps observed with the portal’s service delivery and learnings through internet, news and direct conversational interviews with the labour migrants, brought interest in the researcher to study a wholesome technological solution.
The aim of the research was to explore a framework based on Big Data for the service delivery for the e-governance of Nepal for the labour migrant. Research questions are stated in the chapter one. The main research question, in the view to fulfill the objective of the study, was, “RQ: What are the tools, technology and components that lead to the e-governance transformation of labour migrant industry”. To answer the main research question, the following sub-research questions were formulated to have detail study.
SQ1. What are the issues or gaps of the Nepalese Labour migrant system?
SRQ2: What are the components for transformation in the e-governance for labour migrants, that are observed through this study?
In order to understand the gaps of the existing Nepalese Labour migrant system the available studies on this topic was studied extensively in chapter four. The literature under taken in this study have stated challenges and recommendations for improvement in many of these materials. In this context, the researcher interviewed an expert and a retired prominent bureaucrat of high level in the Department of Foreign Employment who intended, during his tenure, to implement several technological and administrative changes. The interview gave the researcher the total view that, the vested personal interest of the administration and influencing political power, have resented a rapid change to lessen the missing gaps in the service delivery. The recruitment office sector has imposed some of their sayings by several strikes a few years before (Amnesty International, 2017). This effort itself depicts the power of their networking and their influence as prominent stakeholder. Taking this interview and understanding the ICT projects in the country for the e-governance delivery, led to the research title.
The DoFE and MoLE are aware of the gaps of study in the issues of the labour migrants of Nepal. Various combined studies have been carried with national and international institutes and reports with conclusive recommendations have been prepared under the DoFE. Leap frog actions are not observed to be taken by the government even to efficiently solve the policy outlined guidelines. At this point, the researcher found it worthy enough to make a requirement analysis on the user side. With the observation made, the researcher believed that it would be worthy to explore and study a user-centric e-governance. The researcher carried out this research based on post-positivists philosophical and adopted the survey research design so as to gather more opinion from a larger population who apply for foreign jobs. Chapter three outlined the philosophical assumptions underpinning this research study. This chapter presented the research design as well as data collection techniques employed for the survey strategy.
A pilot project (April 15 2017) was carried out successfully which determined the questions and the philosophy of research design. To explore the context, quantitative data were generated through questionnaire survey applying convenient sampling. Since the migrants turn to the province’s head-quarters and main cities, the probability of the population representation clearly fulfilled from the sampling taken from Kathmandu and other main cities of Nepal. The population of the survey in this study were from all the provinces of Nepal. The sample size of 440, was determined by using 95% level of confidence at 0.05% acceptable margin of error. All the processes of the study were stage wise discussed and approved by the research supervisor. After collection of data it went through screening and cleaning, reliability and validity testing procedures. Tools used for data entry was mainly SPSS 22 with some support of Microsoft Excel 2016.
The Department of Foreign Employment (DoFE) is the main office of the GoN, which takes the responsibility of deploying the service delivery platform in regards to the foreign labour migrant. The Nepalese labour migrants are frequently travelling with the permit issued by this department. These jobs are mostly fetched by the Nepalese recruitment agents (RA) who also take up a long responsibility of Nepalese placement in foreign countries. Some country to country agreement method of job placement are also available. However, most labour migrants go through the recruitment agency fetched job procedures. Although the DoFE has taken certain actions to improve the delivery of services, much gaps lie in the procedure, resulting of labour migrants landing in jobs which deviate from the paper works and promised benefits. The DoFE does not till date show proper tracking and mandatory procedures for online activities. The negligence of paperless record showing and research has set up loop holes for the CoD (Country of Destination) agents and foreign serving companies to take advantage of the mislead labour migrants from Nepal.
The researcher explored the process of service delivery by a e-governance based on Big Data application that are in practice outside Nepal. The study was conducted on the labour migrants themselves to analyze their requirement for a wholesome technology solution. The framework developed from the respondents’ requirement analysis proposes the initial concept of the e-governance adaption benefit of the Big Data applications. Implementation of this can not only bring social and economic upliftment but can empower the labour migrants themselves.
The important theoretical contribution of the study is the findings on the readiness of the labour migrant to use the Nepal’s e-governance service delivery platform. The study seeks to the way DoFE can implement the proposed framework based on Big Data technology for a wholesome, transparent job service delivery. The survey analysis has presented a framework based on four factors to be incorporated as Big Data components. Dashboards, visualization and reporting for transparent information system, the user applications that query, updates and creates data for input sources, the policy driven sources of data as ingestion to the system and the reuse mechanism by publishing data. The implementation can be possible with the lead of DoFE and close collaboration with other concerned stakeholders.
The main methodological contribution of the research has been the collection of the requirement opinion of the labour migrants applying for foreign jobs with government labour permits. Another methodological contribution lies in the experience gained through the application of the survey strategy and the interpretation approach and techniques used for data collection. This experience may be useful for other studies on the adoption of Big Data in e-governance of Nepal. The success will contribute to more learning for e-governance service delivery for country like Nepal.
One of the practical contribution of this research is the detail insights provided by the survey study. The analysis reveal that e-governance service delivery for this industry is very important for job seekers in foreign environment. The study also reveals the readiness of the labour migrant to use the applications to be rendered by the government department. Another practical contribution is the necessity for the government to drive the ICT delivery of this industry in policy level so that a wholesome one-window transparent system is developed to empower the labour migrant while applying for labour permit.