It has been observed nowadays that technology continually progressed in our instructional system. With the numerous advantages it brings to trainees in addition to teachers, it becomes a common concern for universities in executing it. Effectiveness, convenience and most particularly process improvement in the academic system are simply a few of the major contribution of technology. It enables trainees and instructors enhanced their skills in applying the most recent technologies like online knowing or distance learning, computer system helped directions, and so on.
With the unrestricted information that it offers through the internet application, it also offers unlimited details that can be utilized for class conversation as well as for common research study jobs.
Innovation has become a huge part of the present instructional system and it continue to improved or being upgraded as time goes by. With the constant studies in establishing customized systems and computer facilities that is continuously being performed by computer scientist and other experts, there will come a time that there will be no trainees and instructors anymore be carrying out normal class classes.
Instead what will occur is that classes will be carried out at the benefit of voice recognition or taped voice systems, or it can be normal online classes and examinations which are already executed in a lot of certification tests in computer application and research studies.
In this paper, the main focus is on the impact of technology in education. How technology does shape our current instructional system and how it assists students as well as instructor attained fantastic success in applying it.
Likewise in this paper consists of some of the appropriate theories and studies concerning technology in education like tools used, benefits it gives schools that uses it, in addition to a few of the current findings on the results of technology being applied in the instructional system of the schools.
Influence of Science and Technology on Education
The involvement of technology actually started during the war, specifically during World War 2. This is military forces started to formulate a strategy on how they can counter-attack their opponent. Having this in mind, militaries started to invent compass, portable walkie talkie and even the start internet was also during the time of war. This only means that for the military forces during those earlier days, just like today, applying technology can give greater advantage against your enemies in the war as like for companies in the business these days, it provides leverage in the way you conduct business.
In the educational system side, applying technology has been the late sector that applies it. This is due to the usual practice done in classroom, where teachers are the only person that are known and respected in conducting a classroom education. That is why even at the present, most highly developed countries are mostly the only followers of distance learning, unlike for developing countries until now it is still not been so popular instead normal and the usual classroom classes are conducted.
The influence of science and technology for the military in studying the origin of technology before it was now popularly used in the educational system was mainly for research projects as well as for counter attacking the enemies, which mean for analysis and decision making. For the educational system side, it continuous to be applied in the same manner, like for most Computer Aided Instruction (CAI), mostly it is used to high end subjects like in Math and Sciences, where students and teachers definitely needs assistance in order to effectively conduct classes.
This was actually a clear reflection which was also adopted in the early technology application during the war. Also, for management strategies by most managers these days, deciding what strategies needs to be applied and how effective it is once selected, CAI/ CAM are also some of the educational tools that managers used in their day to day management decisions and operational strategies. But, there are also times that these off the shelves softwares may not suffice the needs of the users, whether it is for education or in business, and that is the time development of a more customized systems started. This is when the time of development projects, programmers, systems analyst and systems supports started to come into the picture.
This is again because of the need of certain institutions for more customized systems. In the educational system alone, it becomes very competitive these days, because there is already unlimited information that it can be used. Like for any university, they can formulate their own system, where students can log in and find assignments, resource materials, upload assignments and exams and automatically gets score from the system or sometimes having to attend discussions or forums if in case need to have second opinions or advised from the experts online. (Doods, B.I., & Lefler, R.W, 1946).
Technological Tools for Education
Distance Learning and E-Learning
Distance learning or e-learning has become these days one of the most commonly used tool in the education systems. With its very convenient way of attending class trough the web, where students and teachers just login to the site where the module or subject area is located in the school or university website, it has provided an easy and very convenient way of conducting classes. For others it is still not that popular, since others would say that still classroom and face to face discussion is still effective because teachers can still see students how they do their work in the room, unlike in the web, you don’t know what the students is actually doing, like how the student pays attention to the discussion or just left the room and many other issues.
This technology, first encourage students as well as teachers practiced high standard of professionalism and honesty. It also encourages students and teachers to have more interaction and can even assign convenient time as to when they can schedule next class, since what is most important is to finish the class within the required number of hours. Also for teachers, since the way they usually conduct traditional and old style of teaching practice, this also upgrades their skills in teaching classes and even encourages them more to be familiar with other tools. With that it also adds more opportunity since their expertise has been upgraded and this time with the application of Information technology processes and tools.
Distance learning also provides busy people who does not have the convenience of attending regular classes, like take for instance a person who is eagerly wants to finished college but due to his busy schedule in doing business, regular classes is definitely impossible for him to take. With distance learning, he or she will have the opportunity to take classes online, provided he has internet at home like either through broadband or DSL and then its ready, schedules will just be arranged depending on the time agreed by lecturer and the student. (Distance Learning, n.d.).
Computer Aided Instructions
Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) or Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) are two of the very early educational tools applied for both in school and industries respectively. For CAI, it stared to be used in schools primarily to support teachers in handling high end subjects like math, science, business, etc. These days, it continuous to be a popular tool for teachers and for managers in educating their students and their staff on how to apply specific standards, approach or formulas.
It has been popular for years now, because it does not only provide great assistance for users on how to follow certain applications but it also helps users in easily mastering the application or the subject and immediately apply it in actual way. What makes CAI/Cam so popular is that it does not only provide direction on the approaches or formulas, it also provides real life sample which can help users in easily understanding the concept and application of the tool of the subject. Presentation, simulations, and samples are just some of the most important part of these educational tools that continuously becoming a standard partner by users for years now. (Computer Aided Instruction, n.d.).
The Role of Technology in Early Childhood Education
In the early education, technology has been very helpful in enhancing the skills of young children. With the application of CAI softwares and other internet application, young students easily appreciate learning and become very familiar with it. Factors such as social interaction, developmental appropriateness, and children can find many ways in finding solution to the task assigned by their teachers. For the social interaction, it provides these young students a sense of belonging by forming them in a group and assigning them on a task, these young students have formulated at an early stage of their life a sense of leadership and cooperation among themselves.
For the developmental appropriateness, it helps these young children the confidence of using computers and softwares, which also helps them in other things like being confident in dealing with their own personal life. This has been very evident most especially to those young students who started to be more proficient in their study which also helps teachers to further improve the level of delivery that they must give for the students.
Lastly, young students have shown significant improvement of not just following task but also providing critical understanding about the task assigned. They even find many ways in solving the task. This only shows that the critical understanding of the students were greatly influence by their improved learning of the technology being applied in their studies which eventually will help them in preparing themselves to more challenging task ahead and will always show confidence in doing it. (Clements, D, & Sarama, J, 2002)
Impact of Technology for Teachers in Secondary Education
Technology does not only provide development for students but also for teachers as well. Learning these technology helps teacher cope with the difficult challenges assign to them, like handling how to compute grades, conducting presentation in front of the class and other things. This has made their work a lot easier and at the same time helps them in performing their job. For the teachers at first, it has always the usual feeling of hesitation as to what it can bring to the usual process that is being applied in conducting classes for the students. But through the many easy ways on how to apply it and not really forcing it to apply the whole package or process at first, it helps them cope up little by little and eventually helps them attain the level of liking the application of technology.
Many teachers not only give them an easy way of conducting actual classes or being given the convenience of handling distance learning. These factors of improvement and not the hesitation of not applying it has become the main goal of many teachers, systems that will be beneficial for both the students and the teachers are always what needed to be aimed for, by teachers.
Teachers have been even very helpful is assisting technology experts in formulating the system as to how it can help the school, students and even themselves before any development projects or any technology implementation will be implemented. With these developmental approaches that teachers has provided and received, it only shows that technology will be further being developed as time goes by. (Willis, E, & Raines, P, 2001).
Current Status of Technology in Education System
It has been discussed earlier that technology has become a major factor in the improvement of the educational system and not a barrier to development. One of the major successes it has developed was the existence of distance learning and CAI. These two has been the usual forefront of technological advancement in the educational system, but what does really a typical classroom education differs to distance learning and also what are the advantages in applying the latter.
First, it is important for us to have business as an analogy of how educational system favors technology and not typical classroom education. In the business today, many organizations have implemented technology almost in any processes that they do in the organization. Form manufacturing of goods, meeting clients, providing service to their customers or even providing necessary reports for managers and leaders in their decision making. Information is definitely an important requirement for the business either it is for your local customers, like employees and staff or it can be for your client or customers which needs of information may vary from different types depending on their classification.
Not having to provide clear information across all your systems and processes will be one of the most common head ache for management. Some of the common reason maybe lack of clear and deep understanding about the process or it maybe lack of documentation management in the company which will be the only source of information.
But the main importance of this research paper is to provide not only the importance of information but also how implementing highly effective strategies can be of used in managing desirable information in an organization. Also provides you some of the common challenges and problems faced by management in doing it. Lastly is to provide some effective ways in managing information and how it can be achieved in an organization.
Over-all it is the process that drives technology to be part of the business system. As compare to the educational system, it is actually almost the same as in the business, clients are students, managers are like teachers, sometimes teachers would mind making used of most of his time computing grades, or formulating exams and conducting it. Like in the business, these times may already be put in the system and let the system work for the managers, and for the managers, they can focus more on formulating strategy instead. These important times has given the company as well as the managers the most efficient time in formulating the right duties which are sometimes the company are not aware.
In the educational sector, instead for teachers formulating a bunch of exams and computing grades and providing assignments and seat5work and even conducting classes for their students, these times can be used for other things. Like for instance formulating a new manual for students can use in order for them to easily understand and grasp the discussions. Or it can also be used for coaching the students in order for them to be more confident on what they are doing. In this way time is not wasted and technology has provided a better way in doing that time in using it effectively and efficiently.
On the other hand, if teachers still adopt the classroom type, it will only eat up most of their time and would only make teachers and students feel bored unless of course teachers are creative enough in providing new techniques in handling class. But this does not happen all the time. Students and teachers may have time that they might have unproductive days, like teachers is absent, where it may results to no assignment checking, no discussions, no reviews for the upcoming major exams and most especially there will be no quizzes and seat works that will help students in learning the topics assigned to them.
This is the clear scenario for teachers continuously applying the old and usual way in class. It will not provide any benefit for both the teachers and students, with that it should be enhanced and that is the main purpose of technology. In fact there are other agencies or organization that adopts technology, like: Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development (CHILD) and the Apple Classroom for Tomorrow (ACOT), these groups has been implementing technology in their system and students are very much appreciating the way it is being conducted. (Wellburn, E, 1996).
Scholarly Articles Relating to Benefits of Technology in Education
School-Based Technology in Kenya: The Noble Dream
One of the living proofs that technology has been a big factor in the improvement of the educational system is the country of Kenya. The country has been implementing an old way of education until such time, they were awarded to received the needed support in improving their current educational system through the implementation if technology. With computers and softwares installed in every PC for students to used. It does not only immediately appreciated by the local students but it also provided them an easy way of understanding their lesson through the use of computers.
With computers and softwares that were used in classrooms it helps students to easily understand the topics being discusses and it shows that students easily can follow instruction, even at the beginning it was frightening in their side to used computers. But later on it was still the student’s eagerness to learn these new technology and tools that made them achieve great success of appreciating it. These have also been the start of the country’s re-visiting of their policies as to how they can improve the educational system of the country. Policies that will further enhanced the learning of their people through the use of technology.
They also observed that technology can be a big factor for the country’s success in the future and this must start with their educational system. The country also observed and evaluated a challenge that needs to be faced in implementing it like factors such as budget which is important in achieving this goal. But the country is very optimistic and is ready to do anything in their power to have it implemented for the benefit of its people.
For country like Kenya, these maybe a big task to faced as well as challenge that needs to be considered, but with the determination and the drive that they have in realizing these promise since it really provides a big advantage in the educational system, the country is very serious in taking it for its people and will work hard to achieve it. (Sanya, A, 2001).
Managing Teachers’ ICT: Integration in Singapore Schools
Integrating Information and Communication technology in Singapore schools was not that easy. First, it took a lot of interviews from students and teachers on how ICT can be integrated in the classrooms. With students and teachers that are used of handling classes within the rooms has made it not that easy. In this study it shows that schools in Singapore needs to convinced first old teachers and students as well on how they will be impacted by the implementation of technology in their class. With the number of convincing that needs to be done, later on teachers have submitted themselves and even help provide some of the needed inputs on how it can be effectively be implemented in the classroom.
With the well needed input from the senior teachers and students, the development of well developed ICT system was established and this helps in improving some of the identified and delicate processes that is being applied in the classroom. It does not only help students achieved their great potential as a students but also has helped teachers in effectively performing their task in the class. The improvement has been applied to selective secondary and junior colleges in Singapore as an initial test.
Even though there were still a lot of people looking for the traditional educational system, still the governments were so eager in implementing it in order to upgrade the system even though there are cultural issues and traditional standards that may be affected in applying it. With these developmental initiatives, it made Singapore as one of the most advanced countries in the world that applies technology effectively in their educational system. This has also been the gateway for other technological implementation in other sector of government and just like the educational improvement it also provides improvement and advancement in the other sectors of government which it applies technology as well. (Lim, C.P., & Khine, M.S, 2002).
Latest Findings, Stats and Analysis
Implementing Technology on Education: Recent Findings
Just like in business implementing technology effectively is very important. Take for instance for the management, managing information effectively is highly necessary whether you are working in a private or in the public sector. Mainly because information is the main requirement for any process that runs in an industry. It maybe something likes information that will be used in developing a security system, or supply chain systems or even an online training system. Information must be well kept like through proper documentation by somebody and it needs to be updated as well whenever there is some new implementation happen in a certain process, because that is one common issue encountered in the management where most archived information are outdated and does not reflect the current process being used.
That is why for most companies today challenges like (1) how this information be managed strategically and effectively, and (2) how will you prepare employees in adapting this improvement most specially the ones that are directly managing the information. Like in the first challenge, it could be done through deep understanding on the current process applied, as well as deep technical knowledge on the current industry standards, and properly documented and most of all knowing the impact and risk of these things in your present environment.
For the second challenge, this can be done like preparing your employee through “kick off” seminars and preparing information experts of the company by sending them to highly extensive trainings for them to be ready in the development and implementation of this new process or system. These was also the problem with some schools have applied technology effectively; there are also others who fail in delivering or applying technology. In this case school’s personnel like teachers, principal and their students plays a vital role in formulating the system in order to achieved effective technology to be applied in their educational system. (Cradler, J, n.d.).
Obviously involvement of people is definitely the first one to be considered in order to achieve effective information management and where effective strategies can be applied. Like the support of the top management, needs to be open minded and well aware of this needs and trends in the global market. That is why other business entities would see it not necessary since initial investment is high; even they know that their business would need it because they work with global partners and customers. Next is the proper identification of processes or validating existing ones, check carefully if it is according to business needs and following certain standards like of that set in ISO or CMMi.
Technology, maybe one of the most important factor since it needs a lot of convincing for the company to understand it and sometimes consultants and experts in the company is needed, in order for them to select what technology best fits their needs and not just because this is in demand in most industry or maybe because it cheaper than the other. Content, it means that validation of information content must also be taken into consideration because this may lead all other factors to go in the wrong path if the content is not the one reflecting to the current process.
The common problems encounter by management as well as in the educational sector in improving Information or applying technology in their educational system is that they lack determination and willingness to be involved in such development.
The common problems are the following: (1) a lot of systems that were developed that does not provide any value to the organization, (2) lack of integration between different systems, (3) lack of strong drive among IT and Management in upgrading legacy systems, (4) competition between other information systems, (5) no clear plan as to what best technology to be used, (6) limited capabilities of the system used by the staff, (7) poor quality, inconsistency and most of all outdated information prescribed by the systems, (8) lack of support by the top level management, (9) lack or limited people who will need to deploy, support or administer the information or information systems, (10) lack of standard reference or centralized and updated information that relates to process applied, (11) does not address the critical issues and needs by the business, (12) lack of clear direction from the organization, (13) high resistance to change by most staff, most especially the old ones, and lastly (14) politics in the organization.
Since, we are now in the digital age where information is already provided through the internet or intranet. Information must be carefully be prepared by the organization and these should be come into balance between the business needs, technology to be used, and lastly is the way it could be accessed by your users or customers. (Robertson, J, 2005).
NEA Latest Issues and Statistics Regarding technology in Education
Based on the findings made by National Education Authority, the typical teacher are usually white, female, married, religious, and just above 40 years of age and over half of them holds a masters degree. They also spend almost 50 hrs or more teaching and non teaching task in their school where they are assigned. They also teach an average of 21 students per class. Also spend an average of $443 per year in their own money in doing their job in class. Also makes a starting salary of 31K USD per year. And lastly is that these teachers are those who engaged in teaching because they love kids or teaching young people.
The importance of these findings is that to measure the importance of technology in the educational sector. In this result it shows that most teachers are females, the schools has not that been attractive to male and for the schools adds more strictness and formality in the classroom presentation. Students would also prefer male teachers than females because they show more focus on directing students’ values and not only on the desired lesson that needs to be handled. In this case it also shows that technology and the increase in salary will somehow makes these findings are changes in order to progress in the educational sector.
The teaching profession must be look into by administrators and principals on how it can attract other potential teachers to come and work in the schools. One of the main drives to that is applying technology in order to uplift the level of delivery by these teachers and be upgraded in the traditional way of handling classes. (Pytel, B, 2006).
The Future of Technology in Education
The future of technology in education would definitely be depending on the drive of the national government and the assistance of the private agencies on how it can be implemented effectively. With the better understanding on the requirements by the students and teachers, this is not impossible to attain. The government is starting to take this into account as to how they can provide extra assistance for the educational sector and provide a better experience and development for teachers in handling classroom discussions. Technologies like video showing, internet research sites, allowing students to conduct exchange to their teachers online whenever they needed like coaching and others are just some of the many ways that technology can provide for students and teachers.
This development will not only make students and teachers be familiar with the technological tools and processes but will also prepare them in the more advanced and well used tools in the industries once they graduate in the universities. It is an important experience that students must take because this is not only the trend being used these days but it also helps them find better ways on how they can improve their work.
For the teachers, improving their skills will definitely one of the benefits that they can have, another one is that they can effectively do their task effectively and be focused with other things that may also improved the quality of the schools like doing peer reviews, coaching to students, and most of all enhancing the training and educational materials being used by the schools. This is all for the improvement and advancement of the school and this will continue to be the main goal of every school in effectively performing the educational process effectively. (Nickerson, R., & Zodhiates, P, 1998).
Success in Technology in Education Depends on Us
Definitely the success in applying technology in education depends also on us, on how we set it as one of our main priority. This must also be the main goal of all schools as many of the findings and proven effective technology have been applied. It is the small and big responsibility of all of us on how we urge and have an open minded acceptance on the benefits it can give to us and to the future generations. This also the job of the government as to how they can look into the success of the business, like on how improvement it provides to businesses must also be the same in the educational system.
Working in a collaborative way from the government up to the students patronizing it will be the main key for its continuous improvement and success. With this education will never be the more traditional and usual way instead it will continue to strive for more advanced and more convenient way of handling it. It will also provide more time for other productive ways which may also help us human to continue achieve progress also in our own lives. (Molenda, M, & Sullivan, M, 2001).
Like in the case of security and privacy, these are two of the most important concerns in the implementation of technology. Security is actually defined as the process of protecting data and information most especially those that are running on the network like LAN or Local Area Network, which means within the company or in the Internet and E-Mail. While, Privacy pertains to its ability to make use of the information of someone or something without any formal consent from the person or company. control the information, like personal information like revealing and using of your name, address and contact details it can also be transactions information, like bank account number, invoice id or order details, etc.
Usually privacy issue are common to all transaction where information of clients can be accessed by anyone, take for instance a staff that works in the bank may use that client list for business of his own. Information either coming from the internet or something that is within the company is all vulnerable to this issue of security and privacy and must be addressed immediately since it incur a lot of cost for the company. Some Statistics or Figures about Security and Privacy, For a more convincing report on the impact it creates in the business, the following are some of the registered stats regarding security and privacy.
To start with, it was in the 29th of January 2003 from ZDNet where they performed an actual test on how fast an unprotected server be affected by attacks. And the result where overwhelming, and the result was in the first 24 hours, 467 malicious attacks where registered and most of it came from the US and Western Europe. Next, was in February 1, 2003 from a joint project by CAIDA, ICSI, Silicon Defense, UC Berkeley and UC San Diego, where the project is to see the virus statistics particularly the virus Sapphire and Slammer SQL worms. The result was this worm roughly estimated that it can run worldwide in no less than 10 minutes and it was considered the fastest worm to date. It was also found out that in the host/ server that was tested that the numbers of compromise host that can infect are increasing every 8.5 seconds.
And what is most alarming is that this worm virus can run though the net and infect 55 million IP addresses/ second or 75 million victims or even more. In the New York Times Magazine dated February 9, 2003, it was reported December of 2002 where one on-line SPAM prevention services measured upward of 5,000,000 spam attacks which is nearly 3 times in the same month it was registered in 1999. In the Information Security Magazine, because of these threats in security just over half of the company survey said that their budget would increase by no less than 53% in 2003.
From MSN, March 27, 2003, ID theft costs banks $1 billion a year. Nearly 10,000 victims had home loans – totaling about $300 million – taken out in their name in 2002 and another 68,000 had new credit cards issued in their name. While the FTC received 161,000 identity theft complaints last year, the FBI estimates the actual number of victims is probably closer to 500,000. From Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC), 11 April 2003, Instances of Internet fraud increased drastically in 2002 as compared to 2001, Losses reported by victims totaled $54 million, versus $17 million the year before, and complaints referred to law enforcement totaled 48,252, compared to 16,755 in 2001 Auction fraud and non-delivery of merchandise were to top two reported crimes, with Credit and debit card fraud following them at 12%.
From Trend Micro, 16 January 2004, it is estimated that PC Viruses cost businesses approximately $55 Billion in damages in 2003. The same calculations in were done in 2002 and 2001, at $20-30 Billion and $13 Billion, respectively. From Message Labs, 17 January 2004, Processing between 50,000 and 60,000 new copies per hour, W32/Mydoom.A has exceeded the infamous SoBig.
F virus in terms of copies intercepted, and the number continues to rise. Message Labs collected over 1.2 Million copies of W32/Mydoom.A-mm at its peak infection rate; about 1 in 12 emails on the Internet were MyDoom Viruses. And lastly, from SecurityStats.Com, 22 February 2004, across all products, Microsoft released 51 security advisories in 2003. That represents an average of nearly one new security patch per week. 30 of the MS Security Bulletins released in 2003 affected Microsoft’s Windows XP Operating System. (Most Requested Statistics, n.d.). In other words this is another challenge that needs to be considered in order to implement better technology in education.
In this study it shows that technology in education just like on how it implements in business can definitely be beneficial in improving the process. With the latest tools such as CAI/CAM and Online or Distance learning it provides educators and students an easy and effective way in handling class. It also provides teachers and students making used of their time in other productive tasks. Like for teachers improving the curriculum and enhancing their soft skills may also be expected to improve.
For the side of students applying technology gives them the convenience of taking their class and performing more productive ways other that doing the usual and traditional ways, which are sometimes boring. It also prepares teachers and students in more opportunity ahead, which makes them more marketable in the future since the familiarity with the technology is applied. But in order to apply it effectively, there are some issues that need to be considered like security and privacy as well as the most common job satisfaction.
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