This assignment is intended to look at the Guyana sugar cooperation, which is located at La Bonne Intention East coast Demerara, and their culture of work ethics. It will detail how the company operates on the various levels of management indicating their efficiency and effectiveness towards completing their goals and objectives.
This assignment will also examine the approaches of management and identify the ones that would best suit the Guyana sugar cooperation as it relates to its organization structure. The company’s history will also be reviewed, which would entail how management contributed to the company’s growth periodically.
Guyana is home to Amerindians, African, Portuguese, East Indians, and Chinese all of whom brought a diversity of culture that is shared among each, which creates a well blended society and work ethics as well. Guyana is also known for its bio-diversity, natural resources, water resources and fertile productive land ideal for agriculture.
Guyanese is also well known for their preference of freedom or flexibility to work especially persons working in government owned agency.
While Guyanese enjoy a 40 hour week of work and sometimes less due to holidays, along with other fringe benefits such as certified sick leave, uncertified sick leave to mention a few other country do not have the same luxury in terms of time off from work, for them its miss a day and don’t come back mentality due to the demand for work. The introduction of more foreign based companies in Guyana is creating a new culture of work.
Most Guyanese are accustomed to miss a day of work and continue the next as per normal; however with the increase of the country’s population means a high demand for employment which private local and private foreign companies provide, so missing a day is not an option. This means we are slowly moving away from delinquent attitude towards work, while many can adopt some cant which causes rifts in our work force.
Research carried out by the Guyana Bureau of statistics of the labour force on 4th quarter of 2017 indicated that there was a steady fluctuation in the country’s employment rate for age 15 and above of the population at the time with a 12.12% unemployment rate. The survey also indicated that more men were employed than that of female. At present Guyana population is 782,766 of which 50.42% is male and 49.76% is female (according to world population review) with an unemployment rate of 12.15 %( according to statista.com). There is 80% of Guyanese graduate living abroad which has a socio-economical impact on Guyana.
The Guyana Sugar Corporation is the producers of Sugar founded in 1658 under the Dutch West Indies Company. In addition to sugar, the byproduct of sugar called molasses is sold to distilleries that produce rums. Their main export market is in the United Kingdom, the Caribbean and the United States. GUYSUCO is also able to satisfy the local demand for brown sugar. They also play a major role in the sugar communities around the plantations providing sporting facilities, medical facilities and also the drainage of those communities.
GUYSUCO employs around 17,000 persons in various fields such as in agriculture, Finance, Information Technology, Human Resource etc. who employs different Leadership style, management techniques and approaches to accomplish their aims and objects.
The classical approach is based on employees having physical and economic or financial needs in their working environment. It states that person would be more motivated to work for an organization which they gain more financially. In the classical approach other need such social needs and the need for job satisfaction are unimportant. Developed in the nineteen century, the classical approach focuses more on the efficiency of an organization so it cater for specialization of labour, centralized decision making and maximum profit gains with least resources. The classical approach can be divided into the scientific management approach, Administration management and the Bureaucratic management.
Scientific management approach- This approach was developed by Fredrick Winslow Taylor in 1903. Taylor implemented ways to solve management problem through the processes of observation, measurement, experimental comparison and formulation of procedures which he applied to employee’s behaviors. The scientific management approach focuses on the having suitable working conditions and good ergonomics; there should also be a standard for performance meaning employee and the employer should have common interest in the organization. Taylor further pointed out that employee must be encouraged to provide maximum output. In addition, Taylor stated that physical jobs should be separated from mental jobs and there must be adequate training for a job before they are selected or placed to do that job.
Administrative management approach- Henry Fayol developed this approach in 1916, stating that organizations should have a structure and have a different department that focuses on a particular aspect of that organization so that there is efficiency. Fayol also came up with five steps of managerial functions (planning, commanding, organizing, coordinating and controlling) and fourteen management principles which are division of work, Authority, Discipline, Unity of command, Unity of direction, Subordination of individual interest to common goal, remuneration of staff, centralization, chain of command, order, equity, stability of staff, initiative and esprit do corps (which means union of individuals in the work place).
Bureaucratic management approach- This approach was coined by Max Weber in 1920. The Bureaucratic approach is concerned with the procedure, which is rules and regulation, of an organization as well as the hierarchy structure. It also states that only individuals who are qualified or have the experience and skills will be selected for the job. In this approach Max web stated that every employee should know what their areas of focus are and should not go beyond those responsibilities of their department.
The behavioral approach was developed by Elton Mayo in 1924. Elton Mayo along with white head, Fritz Roethlisberger and Dickenson conducted studies on a textile Mill in Philadelphia where they focused on labour turn over. They discovered that work behaviors of employees were not only affected by economical gains but also social needs. Mayo implemented rest periods during workdays that created a less tense work environment and allowed for smooth effective and efficient productivity as well as reduction in labour turn over rate.
The Modern approach began in 1960 and continues to present day where employers are slowly moving away from human labour and employing mostly machines, especially in manufacturing industries, to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their organization. Three categories of Modern approach include the quantitative approach, system approach and the contingency approach.
Quantitative approach- This approach deals with the use of mathematics information to assist with the decision making processes such as areas of cost reduction, returns on investment and meeting deadlines. However, it does not affect other important part of management such as leadership, motivation and organizing. Harold Knootz said that Quantitative or Mathematical approach is considered as a tool of management rather than a separate approach.
System approach- This system approach deals with the sub-division of complex organization, where industries can be subdivided into firms and firms into departments. It shows the inter-relation and inter-dependence of each sub-division to each other, whereby each sub-division has its specific objectives. The system approach can be broken down into input, process and output of resources, labour, technology etc.
Contingency approach- This approach was developed by J.W. Lorsch and P.R. Lawrence in the 1970’s. This approach states that in order to change a situation that is affecting the organization the internal and external environment must be considered because every situation is different. The contingency approach is not universal so specific solution is used for specific situation based on policies. Additionally, this approach caters for changes in the environment and should have plans to deal with those changes when they arise.
The difference between the main approaches to Management
Focuses on the Economical gains of workers/ employees. It is more of an incentive based motivation. Does not focus on the Economical needs but rather the social aspect of the employees. This is focuses on interpersonal motivation. This approach focuses least on human labour and more on employing machinery to accommodated efficiency and effectiveness.
Least likely to demonstrate sympathy in management to employees. Management is more likely to demonstrate sympathy toward employee than the classical approach Modern approach managers who are separate from the owner of the organization are responsible for employee and may or may not sympathies. They are more situations oriented. However, other organizations are in place to cater for social conflict that may arise such as unions.
Caters for a hierarchy of structure that focuses on the accountability of the person in charge and their subordinate. The behavior structure focuses on the people, processes and culture. Modern approach focuses more on mathematical decision making.
This approach has a structure to their decision making processes. This approach has a more theoretical based. This approach bases their decisions on how it affects there working environment that is labour. This approach has a more psychological based. Don’t have a universal way to make decisions. Decisions are made based on the specific situation considering internal and external variables. This approach is situation based.
This approach has a specialized working environment. This approach is more general relating more on the sociological and psychological in their working environment when getting work done. This approach has both a general which relates to technique of sociology, psychology and philosophy and specialized working environment as it relates to planning.