In Greek mythology, Zeus has the most prominent name among all the gods and goddesses. This is because he is the most powerful and formidable of all the deities. From the beginning, legend had established his power since he overthrown his own father to become the leader of the Greek gods and goddesses. Zeus was also notorious for his numerous affairs with women and the countless children produced from these affairs. In Greek literature, he was shown to be fierce, vengeful and pitiful of mortals.
However, the authority of Zeus is not absolute or unlimited. He is prone to deceit and trickery.
Zeus is both a powerful god and a flawed revered entity, which makes him one of the most interesting personalities in Greek mythology. Before the life of Zeus can be discussed, it is important to discuss the origins of Greek mythology.
This is because the origin of Zeus can only be understood from the context of the beginnings of Greek mythology. According to Hesoid, prior to the existence of all things, there was initially Chaos (Rose, 1991). The existence of Chaos was considered the beginning of all things, as it was the existence from which other beings were derived.
Chaos gave birth to other beings. These were Night, Darkness (also known as Erebos), Love (also referred to as Eros), Tartaros and Earth. Night and Darkness were responsible for the creation of Day and Sky (also called as Aither). Meanwhile, Earth created the Sea (or Pontos), the Mountains and Heaven on its own (Rose, 1991). The account of Hesoid continued with the union of Heaven and Earth (Rose, 1991). Heaven, that which is also referred to as Uranos, is not really considered a god. On the contrary, Earth (sometimes called Gaia) is truly considered as a goddess.
It was said that this unlikely couple produced several offspring. These were “Okeanos and his eddies, Koios and Krios, Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne, Phoibe and Tethys” (Rose, 1991, p. 15). Kronos was the last offspring. He was the most frightful of all children, for he harbored hatred towards his father. Eventually, the family was torn apart by conflict. Heaven became overwhelmed by jealousy towards his children that he forced them all into Earth’s body. When Earth could no longer deal with the suffering, she asked her children to punish their father for revenge.
Only Kronos answered his mother’s call; with a sickle, he castrated his father (Rose, 1991). Collectively, the children of Heaven and Earth are called the Titans (Rose, 1991). The Titans are also known as the Elder Gods (Hamilton, 1969). Among the Titans, six composed a different group (Rose, 1991). These include Iapetos, Okeanos, Kronos and their respective wives, Themis, Tethys and Rhea. The most significant couple in this group is Kronos and Rhea, as they were the parents of Zeus. According to legend, Heaven and Earth predicted that one of Kronos’ children would unseat him from power.
Kronos was alarmed by the warning; as a result, he swallowed each of his children the moment they were born. Rhea disapproved of Kronos’ actions, so when she gave birth to her youngest, Zeus, she decided to hide him from his father. Rather than give the child, Rhea handed to Kronos a rock clothed like a newborn infant. The prediction of Heaven and Earth came true; when Zeus grew up, he became opposed to his father. While Rhea plotted to trick Kronos into throwing up his children, Zeus came to Tartaros to set free Kronos’ brethren who were jailed there.
Cyclops was one of those who were saved, and he provided Zeus with lightning and thunder as gifts in exchange for their freedom. Eventually, the conflict between Kronos and Zeus intensified into a full-blown battle between father and son. The rest of the brethren, including Hekatoncheires and Briareos, were on the side of Zeus. Even Styx and her children proved to be Zeus’ allies. It was said that the battle lasted for a decade. Zeus and his supporters fought from Mount. Olympus, while Kronos and most of the Titans established their post from Mount Orthrys.
Themis and Prometheus were the only Titans who did not participate in Kronos’ fight. The battle between the immortals disturbed both the earth and Tartaros; eventually, Zeus emerged as the victor, due to his thunderbolts and stone showers caused by Hekatoncheires. Kronos and his allies were kept in a prison located in Tartaros, with Hekatoncheires serving as the prison guard. The victory of Zeus against Kronos made him the leader among the gods and forced the Titans into lower positions (Rose, 1991). The origin of Zeus is uncertain, as the details of his birth vary according to different sources.
Two stories state different locations as the birthplace of Zeus. One story stated that Zeus was born in Crete, while another claimed that the god was born in Arkadia (Rose, 1991). According to the tales that do not establish Crete as his birthplace, Zeus was brought to Crete and was concealed in a cave at Lyktos. Meanwhile, the Cretan legend claimed that Zeus was born in a cave located in either Mount Dikte or Mount Ide. In this cave, Zeus was cared for by local gods and goddesses. It was said that Zeus did not go hungry as a goat named Amaltheia brought him food.
The bees also provided Zeus with their honey. It was also said that his cries were inaudible due to the loud war-dance performed by the Kuretes (Rose, 1991). There were various objects closely associated with Zeus. Two of the most prominent objects are the thunderbolt and the aegis (Rose, 1991). The thunderbolt was the god’s destructive weapon; its effect was similar to that of a sharp and powerful missile. Greek art represented the thunderbolt of Zeus as accompanied by flashes of lightning; sometimes, it was also depicted as having wings. As for the aegis, it was the god’s breastplate.
It was illustrated by various authors as either a garment or a shield. In a mere mortal, the aegis may seem like an ordinary armor. However, in the hands of Zeus, the aegis served a mighty weapon with magical abilities. According to legend, whenever the aegis was waved at a foe, this individual will be overwhelmed with fright. If the origins of the aegis will be traced, one would find that it is simply a cloak created from the hide of a goat with the hairs still in it. To an ordinary human, the aegis is known for defensive purposes, especially against the weather and the attacks of the enemy.
Nonetheless, the aegis is worn by Zeus is filled with his mana, or his deific force (Rose, 1991). Aside from the thunderbolt and the aegis, there were other things attributed to Zeus. The eagle is considered as the god’s bird of choice, while the oak tree was his favorite (Hamilton, 1969). The oracle of Zeus is situated in Dodona, where oak trees were abundant. It was established that the will of Zeus was shown by the movement of the oak leaves, which was later interpreted by the priests (Hamilton, 1969). Zeus belonged to the 12 Olympian gods who reigned after the downfall of the Titans (Hamilton, 1969).
He served as the head of this family of divine beings. The group included the siblings of Zeus: his brothers Poseidon and Hades, as well as his sisters Hestia and Hera. The 12 divinities also included the children of Zeus, including Ares, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hermes and Artemis. Hephaestus was the twelfth god in the group. After Zeus dethroned Kronos, he sought to distribute the universe among his brothers and himself (Rose, 1991). The sea became the official territory of Poseidon, while Hades became the ruler of the underworld. In the division of the universe, Zeus emerged as the mightiest among the three (Hamilton, 1969).
He was called various names, such as the “Rain-god, the Cloud-gatherer and the Lord of the Sky” (Hamilton, 1969, p. 27). In fact, Zeus was more powerful than all the gods and goddesses combined (Hamilton, 1969). Despite Zeus’ status, there were territories which were not under his reign. The three gods agreed that Mount Olympus and the earth would be considered as common ground. It is important to note that the sisters were not included in the distribution of the universe (Rose, 1991). This exclusion was apparently due to the rules of ancient Greek law. After he defeated his father, Zeus had another objective: to search for a wife.
He was soon married, but he was also involved in affairs with various women. The marriage of Zeus to Hera is most notable in Greek mythology, though it was suggested that this was not the only marriage Zeus was involved with. According to Homer, Hera was Zeus’ first choice for a wife, as their romance began prior to the defeat of Kronos (Rose, 1991). Ares and Hephaestus, the God of War and the God of Fire respectively, were the children from their union (Hamilton, 1969). However, several accounts stated that Hephaestus was the son of Hera alone. The divine marriage proved to be shaky, due Zeus’ infidelity.
The supreme deity was often depicted as a womanizer, as he had this habit of falling in love with many women. His extramarital affairs were countless and often produced children, mortal and immortal alike. It was said that Zeus had to resort to all sorts of trickery to conceal his unfaithfulness, just as he had used beguilement as a means to lure women. However, Hera usually discovered about these affairs. Several accounts of Hera showed that she was mainly concerned with chastising the other females in Zeus’ life. She punished all those whom Zeus fell in love with, though they only submitted to him because of force or trickery.
Regardless of their situation, Hera remained filled with hatred and she also punished their children (Hamilton, 1969). Some sources suggest that Zeus was involved in other marriages. Prior to his union with Hera, he was married to Themis, who was one of the Titans (Rose, 1991). This marriage resulted in the birth of the Seasons, as well as the Moirai. After Themis, Zeus was involved with Eurynome. According to Hesoid, she was an offsping of Okeanos and Tethys. The union between Zeus and Eurynome produced Charites, better known in the English language as Graces, based on its Latin origins.
The Graces consisted of Aglaia, Euphrosyne and Thalia; they were also known as Splendor, Mirth and Good Cheer respectively (Hamilton, 1969). In most accounts, the Graces were not considered as different entities; they were often depicted as a trinity of beauty and grace. Meanwhile, Themis was not the only Titaness whom Zeus married (Rose, 1991). Zeus also married Mnemosyne, and their union produced the nine Muses. This union was said to have occurred after Zeus’ relationship with Demeter (Rose, 1991). Initially, the Muses were similar to the Graces in the sense they were not distinctly identified from one another (Hamilton, 1969).
Eventually, the Muses were distinguished to each other according to their respective fields. Calliope was the Muse of epic poetry, Clio of history, Erato of love poetry, Euterpe of lyric poetry, Polyhymnia of the songs for the deities, Thalia of comedy and Terpsichore of dance (Hamilton, 1969). A significant relationship is the union between Zeus and Demeter (Rose, 1991). The offspring of this marriage was Kore, who is better known as Persephone. According to an Orphic account, Zeus was also in love with his own daughter. He assumed the shape of a dragon or snake to mate with her.
Their union produced a son named Zagreus, who was later killed by the Titans based on Hera’s orders. However, this account is rather obscure; the story is contrary to the tradition of Greek mythology which indicates that Persephone was married to Hades, the brother of Zeus (Rose, 1991). Some of the deities included in the 12 Olympians were children of Zeus from his affairs with other women. Apollo is recognized as the God of Truth and Light (Hamilton, 1969). His twin, Artemis, is known to be a brave huntswoman. Both deities were the children of Zeus from his relationship with Leto.
Hermes, who is known as the Messenger of Zeus, was the offspring of the supreme god and Maia, the daughter of Atlas. Aphrodite, the Goddess of Beauty and Love, was the offspring of Zeus and Dione according to the Homer’s The Iliad. Nevertheless, another account claimed that Aphrodite came from foam in the sea (Hamilton, 1969). The aforementioned gods and goddesses are only some of the identified children of Zeus. Zeus is known to be the mighty Greek god who had multiple romantic affairs. However, his other attributes were best illustrated in both The Iliad and The Odyssey by Homer.
In these epics, the characteristics of the king of the Greek gods are exposed to the reader. While the stories present the extent of his power and personality, these also reveal his limitations and flaws. For instance, it is already a well-known fact that Zeus is supreme and powerful enough to overthrow Kronos. In Book VIII of The Iliad, he asserted that power by reminding the other gods and goddesses that he is the greatest of them all (Hamilton, 1969). The war between the Greeks and the Trojans had forced the deities to take sides and intervene with the mortal conflict.
However, in a gathering in Mount Olympus, Zeus warned the other deities against interfering in the war. He reminded them that even in a tug-of-war between him and the others, he would still win. Homer wrote, “Fasten a rope of gold to heaven and lay hold, every god and goddess. You could not drag down Zeus. But if I wished to drag you down, then I would” (as cited in Hamilton, 1969, p. 27). Zeus was indeed the strongest among all Greek gods. Despite being the mightiest among all the deities, Zeus was depicted as a god whose will was not absolute.
This was because his stand towards the war and divine intervention constantly shifted. When The Iliad began, Zeus wanted to have little or no involvement in the Trojan War. When Aphrodite became injured as a result of her involvement in the mortal battle, Zeus instructed her to stay way (Hamilton, 1969). In a similar instance, when Diomedes injured Ares, Zeus was more considerate to the former because he found the latter too impulsive. Also, there was a time in the epic when Hera and Athena wanted to participate in the war and Zeus was forced to threaten them just to prevent them from meddling.
At one point, Zeus even seemed to want an end to the intensified conflict; when Paris disappeared from his duel with Menelaus, he suggested that the war should end because Menelaus was technically the winner (Hamilton, 1969). However, it is important to note that Zeus was already involved with the war early on in the epic. The problem with Agamemnon forced Achilles to seek his mother’s help in asking for Zeus’ intervention (Hamilton, 1969). As a favor to her son, Thetis did ask Zeus for the temporary victory of the Trojans just so Achilles can prove to the Greeks that they are ineffective in battle without him.
While he insisted to the other gods and goddesses that they must not intervene, he himself was a divine participant in the war. He listened to the plea of Thetis and soon enough, he tricked Agamemnon through a dream. In Book XI, Zeus had informed Hector that he will become victorious after Agamemnon gets injured in battle. Zeus was also shown to provide omens to the mortal participants of the war. In Book XII, Zeus sent an eagle flying with a snake in its claws; later on, the eagle dropped the snake when it was bitten. This proved to be a bad omen which was ignored by Hector.
Later on in the epic, Zeus did allow the other deities to meddle in the war. The divine intervention in the war even caused the gods and goddesses themselves to be at war with each other. Instead of being a participant, Zeus was merely a spectator in the divine squabble (Hamilton, 1969). The epics of Homer also depicted Zeus as a god of mercy. Whenever a mortal is placed in an appropriate situation, the powerful god took pity on them. After Achilles killed Hector in The Iliad, he continually dragged his enemy’s corpse (Hamilton, 1969).
Zeus and the rest of the gods were not happy with this. Zeus was forced to approach Thetis to put a stop to this unfortunate situation. He asked the deity to talk to her son. In The Odyssey, Odysseus had not found his way home for two decades. For a time, he stayed in an island with the deity Calypso. Calypso refused to let him go and eventually became a prisoner of the island. Zeus knew Odysseus did not deserve this fate and he sought the cooperation of the gods to aid the mortal on his way home. Zeus asked Hermes to travel to the island and convince Calypso to set Odysseus free.
Because no one can refuse the command of Zeus, Calypso was forced to do as the god asked (Hamilton, 1969). In The Odyssey, Zeus was also shown to be capable of wrath and vengeance. The supreme god was portrayed as having livestock in his possession (Rose, 1991). On the island of Thrinakie, some of Odysseus’ companions had killed some cattle and sheep to address their hunger. What these men did not know was that those animals were owned by the supreme god himself. Zeus punished these me by sinking their ship. However, he spared Odysseus from drowning (Rose, 1991).
Zeus may be presented as powerful, merciful and vengeful god, but the leader of the Greek gods also has his share of imperfections. Zeus is devoid of omnipotence (Hamilton, 1969). He is a powerful god but his power is not unlimited. In addition, Zeus is not omnipresent either. His limitations as a god allowed other deities to deceive him and take advantage of his weaknesses. Because Zeus was not omnipresent, Poseidon took advantage of this limitation to further his cause as proven in The Iliad. Zeus had demanded that the other gods and goddesses should not be involved in the war.
In Book XIII, Zeus was busy and was not able to follow the events in the war. In his brother’s absence, Poseidon helped the Greeks aboard his underwater chariot. Despite his brother’s warning, Poseidon went to the battle in disguise to inspire the Greeks (Hamilton, 1969). Hera also took advantage of Zeus’ limitations. The goddess had been against the Trojans from the start, since Paris chose Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess. From her post in Mount Olympus, Hera was overjoyed with the participation of Poseidon in the war (Hamilton, 1969).
She wanted to guarantee that Zeus will not see them interfering in the affairs of the mortals. Zeus was busy in Mount Ida, so he was unable to prevent the other deities from participating in the war. Hera planned to distract Zeus so the other deities can continue their interference without being caught. She enlisted the help of both Aphrodite and Sleep to succeed in her plan. First, she prepared herself in her plot to seduce her husband; she bathed, wore perfume and got dressed. Aphrodite assisted Hera and made her so beautiful that Zeus would not be able to resist her.
Then, Hera asked Sleep to visit Zeus. She made her way to Mount Ida and wished to greet Zeus first with flattery and lies. However, Zeus became so overwhelmed by her beauty that he immediately asked her to lay with him. Hera did not want Zeus to see what was happening to the war, so she insisted that they should go to her chamber underwater to avoid the being seen. Zeus refused. After they made love, Zeus fell into a slumber due to Sleep. With Zeus in deep sleep, Poseidon continued with his interference. When Zeus woke up, he realized what happened and reprimanded Hera (Hamilton, 1969).
The case with Poseidon and Hera showed how limited Zeus’ power was, even if he was the most powerful god in Greek mythology. His brother Poseidon had undermined his authority when he intervened with the war despite his orders. His own wife Hera was capable of deceiving him, who was supposed to be the mightiest of them all. With the use of trickery, Zeus came under the control of deities more inferior to him. In the aforementioned incident, his love and lust for women proved to be his downfall. He was easily distracted by the physical appearance that he became unmindful of what was actually happening with the mortals.
Hence, Zeus was a powerful god but not a perfect one. The limitations of his power allowed other gods and goddesses to deceive him. The reputation of Zeus as the most supreme among all Greek gods and goddesses is justified. He defeated his father Kronos to become the most powerful among all deities. He controlled the Titans and put them under their control. Whenever he was crossed, he sought revenge and severely punished those who had earned his wrath. Meanwhile, he took pity of those who deserved his mercy. Nonetheless, the supremacy of Zeus was not an assurance of his perfection.
Zeus was also flawed like the mortals he governed. One of his weaknesses was his love of women, which resulted in many relationships and children. His will was not fixed; he constantly changed his mind. He was not a god of omnipresence or omniscience; this limitation caused him to be a victim of beguilement. Zeus proved to be the most interesting among all Greek gods. While he was mighty and formidable, he was also weak and imperfect. References Hamilton, E. (1969). Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. New York: Mentor. Rose, H. J. (1991). A Handbook of Greek Mythology. New York: Routledge.