The Feasibility of Moringa Oleifera Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 17 May 2016

The Feasibility of Moringa Oleifera

Due to the toxics that can be found anywhere, different harmful effect on the users may occur that could eventually lead to serious conditions that society might face in the future; Natural inks could be the solution to lessen these harmful effects. Natural inks could lessen the effects of Global warming and depletion of the ozone layer, more on the condition that may make the world worse in the future. Since natural inks are one of the people demand, natural ink can be more economically sound compared to commercialized inks. It is very affordable, since it is easy to conduct, cheap and proven effective. The researchers want to compare and test set ups involving the two mixtures of ink. For Moringa Oleifera extract 4 sets was made, these sets consist of different amount of mixture. Set A has 100% Moringa oleifera extract, B has 1:1 ratio of extract (50%) and dye (50%), C has 2:3 ratio of extract (40%) and dye (60%) and D has 3:2 ratio of extract and dye.

For Rice Stock 3 sets was made, Set A has 1:1 ratio of rice stock (50%) and dye (50%), B has 2:3 ratio of rice stock (40%) and dye (60%) and C has 3:2 ratio of rice stock (60%) and dye (40%). Inks have been placed on a plastic syringe and transferred in an ink tubes. Different sets were tested on a piece of paper and observe its consistency and hue. The researchers succeeded in the results of the experiment which shows that their hypothesis is correct; Set C for Moringa Oleifera and Set B for Rice stock was amongst the best results from the others. It was observed that it has the highest consistency and has the most ink visibility. With the thickness of the ink, the pen didn’t dissipate when used for writing. From the results it was proven that with the use of abundant natural ingredients such as Moringa Oleifera and Rice stock can be used as ink bases. Introduction

Inks have always been an essential part of the lives of human. These are primary use for communication and data recording. Offices, workstations and even academic institutions have been using ink especially for their papers works and some other related activities. However, with the advent of highly commercialized items and supplies, people have difficulty in purchasing some basic things that are necessary to their works. Commercial inks are made using different compounds such as resins and lubricants that brings harmful effects to the health of the users. Inks are also made up of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia, thus, a great risk of ink poisoning if leakages and breakages occur. Due to the pollution that is observable in the world now, being environment-friendly through basic everyday things that are used is vital. An alternative ingredient for making ink that has been found to possess such benefits that would help lessen pollution were the Moringa Oleifera (known as Malunggay) and Rice stock. Moringa Oleifera has many uses most especially its parts.

They are an exceptionally good source of provitamin A, vitamins B and C, minerals (in particular iron), and the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. Moringa Oleifera leaves was said to be the most nutritious part, where inks was to be made with the use of its extract, doubtless using this ingredient is safe in conducting an ink. In today’s modern world, almost every product has been commercialized and people sought for products that are more natural and cheaper instead. The creation of ink with alternative ingredient to be commercialized is a demand for the students as well as for the people. The researcher thought of natural ingredient that has great potentials in having an alternative ballpen ink due to its safe contents. This experiment was decided to develop that make use of natural ink bases to promote awareness and see the efficiency compared to commercialized inks. Statement of the Problem

The research is conducted to test the feasibility of Moringa Oleifera and Rice Stock as an ink bases. Moreover, it aims to answer these questions: 1. How does natural ink differ from other commercialized ink? 2. What properties of Moringa Oleifera that makes it an effective natural ink? 3. Will the ink made from Moringa Oleifera extract dissipate when used for writing? Hypothesis

1. If the natural ink was to be made, then its production will be more economically sound compared to the production of commercialized ink. 2. The Moringa Oleifera extract provides longevity and color to the ink that makes it an effective natural ink. 3. If the ink from Moringa Oleifera extract was to be made, then it will not dissipate when used for writing. Significance of the Study

This study aims to produce natural ink out of Moringa Oleifera Extract and Rice Stock to create an environment-friendly substance. Since Moringa Oleifera can be found anywhere and can be bought in cheaper price, the researchers choose this as an ingredient. This study will show how this natural source can be used to help people, especially office workers, business people and students. This ink can be used for paper works and also can be used as an alternative to the commercialized inks. Commercial inks are made using different chemical compounds like resins and lubricants that may cause harmful effects on the health of the users. This becomes even more perilous when the inks are already disposed; adding to the pollution and contributing to Global warming especially when burned. Moringa Oleifera and Rice stock are two of the many natural ingredients that can be used as ink bases. Scope and Limitations

This study aims to test the effectiveness of Moringa Oleifera (Malunggay)
extract and Rice Stock to produce a permanent ballpen ink. The set-ups are identified as the following:

I. Moringa Oleifera Extract + Dye

Set A= Pure Moringa Oleifera extract
Set B= (with assigned amounts)
Set C= (with assigned amounts)
Set D= (with assigned amounts)

II. Rice Stock + Dye

Set A= (with assigned amounts)
Set B= (with assigned amounts)
Set C= (with assigned amounts)

The main ingredients can be easily gathered around the community. The other materials are can be found in the market. This study limits its coverage on the discussion of permanent ballpen ink production, chemical testing of the sample ink, and the impact of the permanent ink in the environment. The study focused on testing its effectiveness in terms absorption, stick consistency; including its acceptability in terms of color and odor. This study will cover 2-3 days of observation period for more accurate results. Review of Related Literature

Malunggay which is known scientifically as “Moringa Oleifera” the most commonly grown species among moringaceae plants with thirteen different types. “Moringa” on English name, “Sajina” in Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia and is known “Malunggay” in the Philippines. It has eighty other names used worldwide. It grows widely in tropical climate areas. Malunggay is widely used as vegetable ingredient in cooking, as herbal medicine for a number of illness and other practical uses. The Malunggay plant can grow to as high 3 to 9 leaflets. It has a white fragrant flower that produces long pods with 3-angled winged seeds. Malunggay may be propagated by planting its seeds about an inch in the ground or matured malunggay stem cuttings of about 3 feet in length may also be planted into the ground. Planted malunggay cuttings grow faster compared to planted seeds. There are a lot of scientific evidence shows malunggay benefits both on nutritional contents and medicinal properties.

Malunggay is well known as very good source of natural energy booster and nutrition. Universities around the world have studied the malunggay abilities. A powder seed can be substitute for water purification. Malunggay can help on balancing and keeping all important body hormones that contributes for relaxation. The leaf is said to be the most nutritious part, it may be taken cooked, raw and even powdered. Extraction of Malunggay leaves has also the feasibility to make ink pens. In relation to ink studies, ink was made from natural products such as berries, bark and leaves. Leaf extracts have been used for centuries to create numerous colors that, when mixed with different substances, could be used as dye, paint or ink. Different plants produced different colours in the spectrum, and “recipes” were handed down through the generations. Leaves have been used for centuries to make ink because of its various shades that create yellow, green, brown or black ink. Plants that contain tanning colour can be reliable for making ink. For centuries, galls nestled from oak trees as primary ingredient to make a black ink. The rich tanning colour of dogwood and alder tee also results to natural inks. Galls and barks achieve more intense, lasting inks than most of the flower-based inks.

Also, Egyptians achieved quality red ink with poppies. According to Helmenstine, an author and consultant with a broad scientific and medical background states that any acidic fruit juice can be used to make an invisible ink when combined with vinegar to make the ink last longer. Robbins (2010) described marker pens as pens which have their own ink source and usually has a tip made of absorbent and pressed fiber and was first created by Sidney Rosenthal in 1952. Ink, according to Encyclopedia.com (2011), is a combination of a colouring agent, pigment and liquid containing oil, resins and chemical solvents. In the past, ink was fashioned from different coloured juices, plant and animal extracts. But today, synthetic materials are used in addition to these natural ingredients to improve the quality of ink making. Neumann’s and Schluttig’s definition of ink as cited in Lindquist, clearly stated the properties of ink that would be helpful in having a good quality ink. The ink must be clear, filterable solution but not a suspension, should flow easily from the pen and should not spread on paper. Since the ink is natural, no mold must be seen on the solution and has no pronounced unpleasant odor. Likewise, it must have an intense colour which does not become paler nor bleach out entirely as it is used in writing.

Furthermore, Lindquist added that every good ink, whether writing, or combined writing and copying, should have qualities that give writing that, after drying for eight days, is not removed by water or alcohol — even by treatment for days — to such an extent that it becomes illegible. The Iowa Soybean Association has conducted a research that soy bean can be a substitute for ink. Soybean oil is an edible vegetable oil; soy ink is not edible or 100% biodegradable because the pigments and other additives that are mixed with the oil are the same as those used in petroleum-based inks. Degradability studies conducted by Erhan and Bagby concluded that the pigment carrier in 100-percent soy ink degrades almost twice as completely as ink made from soy oil and petroleum resins, and more than four times as completely as standard petroleum inks. Soy ink is a helpful component in paper recycling because the soy ink can be removed more easily than regular ink from paper during the de-inking process. Another researcher conducted a similar study but use different material was Caparas (2010), he conducted the Production of Natural Dye out of Narra’s (Pterocarpus indicus) Sawdust. He determines if the extract of Narra tree’s sawdust is effective as a dye.

There were 30 randomly selected respondents as the sample size. The result obtained shows that 75% of the respondents said that Narra’s sawdust can be made into a dye for clothes. However, 25% of the respondents say that it can’t be a dye. According to the observations and results obtained, Caparas concluded that Narra’s sawdust can be a source of natural dye which is very effective, and it produces more dyes that are environmental-friendly. In accordance to the study, Thomson (2006) stated in his article “Pterocarpus indicus (Narra)” that the heartwood of Narra contains various red compounds, and is used to make a red dye. The bark extract can be used for tanning. Tannin or tannic acid is the brown substance found in the bark and leaves of trees. Local researchers who have made similar studies which used different ingredients were Daphne Divine Calderon Dy, Katarina Josefa Saldaña Araneta, Juan Miguel Arsenal Jucaban, Julie Angela Ferreras Saldo; they are senior students of Ateneo de Iloilo, Sta. Maria Catholic School. They conducted Banana Sap and Rice Stock as Ink Bases of Natural Ink. The sap serves as their main ingredient in making natural ink. They decided to study and develop ball pen and marker inks that uses natural ink bases to promote awareness and see the efficiency compared to the commercial ink of which will undergo different refining processes but will still preserve the nature of pens for the primary benefit of the environment. Methodology

Materials:
* Casserole/ Beaker
* Malunggay leaves
* 1 kg uncooked rice
* 3 ½ cups of water
* 7 tbsp. Food coloring/ dye (any color)
* Containers
* Old Handkerchief/ cloth
* Mortar and pestle
* Plastic syringe (without needle)
* Ink tubes (from used ballpens)
Procedures:
1. Preparation of extract
a. Gather all the supply of Malunggay leaves in a cloth.
b. Pound the malunggay leaves with the use of mortar and pestle to get its extract. c. Observations are as follows:
Trial| With the use Of dry cloth| With the use Of wet cloth| 1| Small amount of Moringa Oleifera leaves (malunggay) was gathered in a cloth and was founded but no extract appeared.| Small amount of Moringa Oleifera leaves (malunggay) was gathered in a cloth and was pounded but there was no extract.| 2| Moringa Oleifera leaves (malunggay) were gathered in a cloth but this time large amount of leaves needed. The leaves were then pounded.| Moringa Oleifera leaves (malunggay) were gathered in a cloth but this time large amount of leaves needed. The leaves were then pounded and produced a bitter smell extract.| d. The pounded malunggay must place in a casserole and set aside.
2. Preparation of Rice Stock e. Place 1 kg uncooked rice in a container.

f. Add 3 ½ cups of water, clean the rice and get its stock.
3. Preparation of Dye
g. Place the 7 tbsp. of powdered dye in a medium size vital. h. Dilute the dye with lukewarm water.
4. Preparation of Ink mixtures
i. Place both casseroles of solutions on a stove.
j. Heat the casseroles in a medium fire until it boils and thicken up. 5. Adding of extract
I. Moringa Oleifera a. Using a measuring cup/beaker, get 3 ml of pure Moringa Oleifera extract. Transfer into ink tube set A. b. Transfer into ink tube set B 3 ml of Moringa Oleifera extract and dye in a ratio of 1:1. c. 3 ml of Moringa Oleifera extract and dye in a ratio of 2:3. Transfer into Set C ink tube. d. Transfer into Set D ink tube 3 ml of Moringa Oleifera extract and dye in a ratio of 3:2. II. Rice Stock

e. Transfer 3 ml of Rice Stock and dye with a ratio of 1:1 in Set A ink tube. f. 3 ml of Rice Stock and dye in a ratio of 2:3. Transfer into Set B ink tube. g. 3 ml Rice stock and dye in a raio of 3:2. Transfer into Set C ink tube. h. Test the pens by writing it in a piece of paper.

6. Observation of Ink
k. Observations are as follows:
I. Moringa Oleifera
Set| Description|
A| Hue is not visible|
B| Light in color|
C| Dark in color|
D| Light in color|
Set A= Pure Moringa Oleifera extract
Set B= (with assigned amounts)
Set C= (with assigned amounts)
Set D= (with assigned amounts)
II.
II. Rice Stock
Set A= (with assigned amounts)
Set B= (with assigned amounts)
Set C= (with assigned amounts)
Set| Description|
A| Not that dark in color|
B| Dark in color|
C| Light in color|
Results and Discussion
A. Moringa Oleifera3 ml colored dye
50%
3 ml colored dye
50%
3 ml colored dye
40%
3 ml colored dye
40%
3 ml colored dye
60%
3 ml colored dye
60%
The pie graph representation above shows the different amount mixture of the ink in the different set-ups by percentage. Set A was technically not given any amount of dye for it serves as the original contrast among the other sets. Set B contains 3 ml Moringa Oleifera extract bond with colored dye in a ratio of 1:1. Set C contains 3 ml Moringa Oleifera extract bond with colored dye in a ratio of 2:3. Set D is comprised of 3 ml Moringa Oleifera extract bond with colored dye in a ratio of 3:2. B. Rice Stock

3 ml colored dye
50%
3 ml colored dye
50%
3 ml colored dye
60%
3 ml colored dye
60%

The pie graph representation above shows the different amount mixture of the ink in the different set-ups by percentage. Set A contains 3 ml Rice Stock bond with colored dye in a ratio of 1:1. Set B contains 3 ml Rice Stock bond with colored dye in a ratio of 2:3. Set C is comprised of 3 ml Rice Stock extract bond with colored dye in a ratio of 3:2. Based on the gathered data, it can be observed that the hue of the ink is depending on the amount added. For best results it is better if the dye has the large amount added to the Moringa Oleifera extract and Rice Stock in order for the hue to be more visible in writing. Set C for Moringa Oleifera and Set B for Rice stock were amongst the best results from the others. It was observed that it has the highest consistency and has the most ink visibility. In the first day of observation Moringa Oleifera extract and Rice stock, when stocked for 1 day; it is not already good to use because of its not pleasant smell.

The researchers therefore decided to make a new one and mix another ingredient for its preservation which is vinegar and salt. On the following day of observation the extract and the stock were preserve and already good for testing by adding dye. With the different sets and amounts on the two ink mixtures, it has shown comparison between the darkness and lightness of the hues. The bar graph representation above by percentage showed that adding powdered dye to the main ingredient has the feasibility in making the ink more thick and consistent. Using powdered dye, there is a correct mixture of the ink where there is an even percent between the two mixtures 50%. Therefore, it has 100% percent sure that the ink will not dissipate when used for writing. It can be observed that adding food coloring to the mixture can complement fluidity that will made the ink dissipate when used for writing. The Moringa Oleifera and Rice stock succeeded in effective natural ink. It has been proven that it can be effective and more economically sound compared to the production of commercialized ink.

The experiment proves that the ink can help in reducing pollution and global warming which causes harmful effects on the health of the users. The researchers had proven that their hypothesis is correct. The results and the observations only show the evidence, that truly these natural ingredients can be used in making ink. The ink was then providing longevity because of the other ingredients added. The different sets used to show the feasibility of the hue of the inks where it added ideas in experimenting assumed products. The mixtures for making natural ink was proven to be an effective substitute for commercialized inks where the researchers only spent small amount for the powdered dye and the other materials that are recycled can be accumulated from the things around the community. As compared to the commercialized ink which uses different chemical compounds like resins and lubricants which becomes more perilous when the inks are disposed, recycling common materials/ local could lessen the expenses in experimenting new product. The main ingredients were consumed wisely and have the feasible that can be used as ink bases. Conclusion

The results showed that the set C and B from Moringa Oleifera extract and rice stock produces good results. With these findings, the researchers therefore conclude that Moringa Oleifera and Rice stock are two of the abundant natural ingredients that can be used in making inks. The inks were not that good in quality but it is very affordable for the students and other people demand. From the other results gathered, the thickness and the consistency of the ink also add in the successful conducting of the experiment because it helps the ink to be not dissipated. Therefore, the researchers also conclude that the main ingredients are effective bases for ink and enough to compete against commercialized inks. Recommendations

The researchers would like to recommend the future researchers who are interested in developing studies about inks to try another alternative ingredient for the researchers’ main ingredient that has sticky content, for the ballpen when used for writing will not be dissipated. Another suggestion is to improve the color of the ingredients for better results. The researchers’ also advocates re-associating the difference between the two inks by using other tests in order to justify the result of this study. Furthermore, having a good quality ink must be focused on before undergoing a series of test.

Bibliography

A. Journal
Martín-Gil J, Ramos-Sánchez MC, Martín-Gil FJ and José-Yacamán M., (2006): Chemical composition of a fountain pen ink. Journal of Chemical Education, 83: 1476–78 Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH, (2007): Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, 21(1):17-25. (Pakistan) B. Books

Banerji, Sures Chandra, (1989): A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. (ISBN) 81-208-0063-X.Sircar, D.C., (1996): Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. (ISBN) 81-208-1166-6 Scott Larsen, (May 2004): Indelible Ink. WaterBrook Press 2003 (ISBN) 1578565545 / 9781578565542. (USA) C. Websites:

Caparas. (2010): “The Production of Natural Dye Out of Narra.” <http://www.scribd.com/doc/35811949/The-Production-of-Natural-Dye-Out-of-Narra>. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph. D., (2010): <http://google.com/invisibleinks.html>. Melissa Jordan-Reilly, (2011): “How to Make Inks Using Petals” <http://www.google.com/make-ink-using- petals.html>. Lopierre, (2011) “Lopi,Leaf Extracts That Can Be Used As Ink” <http://www.google.com/leaf-extracts-can-used-ink.html>. Paul, Werner. “Calligraphy Idea Exchange.” n.d. Dragon’s Blood and Ashes. <http://www.evanlindquist.com/oldinkrecipes.html>. Robbins, Nicholas. (2010): “Yahoo! Contributor Network.” <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2269561/all_about_permanent_markers.html>. Sharon J. Huntington, Christian Science Monitor, (2004) <http://www.csmonitor.com/layout/set/r14/2004/0921/p18s02-hfks.html> Jonae Fredericks (2007): “How to make inks” <http://crafts.creativebug.com/make-ink-plants-1568.html> “Making Berry Inks” (2012) <http://druidgarden.wordpress.com/tag/making-ink-from-plants/>

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