Teaching by Principles
Teaching by Principles
Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy is a very widely commended methodology text which is actually used in the teacher education programs throughout the world. This particular book actually offers a very comprehensive review of practical language teaching options, all tightly anchored in acknowledged principles of language learning together with the language teaching. Towards the end of the chapter exercises actually give the readers the opportunities to process material interactively. The suggested readings within the book give the readers a very essential books and articles within the field.
The aforementioned third edition of teaching through principles features new chapters on course designing, technology as well as critical pedagogy which reflect the present trends and advances in methodology. The book as well features the pre-reading organizers at the commencement of every chapter. Rationalized, expanded references, treatment of the current hot topics of interest are also features within the book. The book also discusses the form-focused instruction, corpus, numerous intelligence, nonnative English verbal communication teaching and autonomy.
The book gives the learners as well as the teachers an opportunity of willingness to communicate, alternatives in assessment. In the first chapter of the book, Brown says that to learn a second language is a very long and a very difficult understanding. A person is actually affected as he or she struggles and managed to reach beyond the confines of the very first language and into a new form of language, new way of thinking, a new culture, acting and the feeling. In the acquisition process, he says that there are so many variables that are involved. However, language learning is not easy to be programmed in a very fast do-it-yourself kit.
All the courses in foreign languages are actually inadequate training ground, for the successful learning of a subsequent language. The book talks so much about teaching and learning. However, the contradiction is removed if an individual looks at the process of teaching as the main facilitation of learning, whereby one can teach a foreign language successfully if, among other things, one knows something concerning the intricate web of variables that are spun together to affect how and the reasons why one learns or fails to become skilled at a second language.
However, it clarifies the place where the teacher begins to understand the principles of language learning as well as teaching. One has to know how the learning takes place. He or she should be able to know how a person can ensure success in language learning. One must as well know how the cognitive processes are utilized in the learning of a second language. One has to know when and where to learn the second language. The book is intended for the teachers in training the people who intend to become the teachers and they have got very little or they don’t have classroom experience at all.
Teaching by principles is actually centered, not astonishingly, around definite principles of language teaching together with the learning. This book is actually structured into four major sections. The first section is the foundations for classroom practice. The second one is the context of teaching, next is the implementing and designing of classroom techniques and finally the classroom practicalities. In the earliest chapter, Brown tends to take an extensive sweeping look at twelve overarching principles of second language learning from which sound practice springs as well as on which the reader’s teaching can be actually based.
This particular information is written in page 16 of the book. This is where the writer groups as affective, cognitive and linguistic principles. He groups them as follows Automaticity, meaningful learning, the anticipation of reward and the intrinsic motivation principles. The next group is actually the strategic investment, language ego and self confidence. He goes further and groups them as risk taking, the language culture connection, the native language effect, inter-language and finally communicative competence.
In the first chapter Brown starts with a very detailed description of a class as well as the sequence of activities which were actually observed for the duration of the lesson. Brown says that there must be a very well planned, executed, efficiently and characteristic of current communicative language of teaching methodology. These remarks are found in page five of his book. There is also a principle of interactivity whereby at the end of every chapter, he provides the topics of discussion, research and action which tend to give the readers an opportunity to interact with the classmates, text itself, convictions and the ideas.
In this same chapter, an informed approach, Brown gives topics which really invite the reader to contrast their responses with a colleague purposely to observe an ESL class. In other words, Brown attempts to bring as much reflections, interaction as well as discussion into the enterprise of learning to teach by principle. There is still the principle of practice mentioned in this book. He gives the readers the opportunity to try to put some ideas into practice or principles which he has been discussing.
On the chapter that talks so much about the techniques and the principles, Brown reproduces a small number of pages from a typical course book and after that he asks his readers to think about the type of lesson plans they might draw up from such kind of materials or the type of techniques and exercises that they may make use of to the best effect with their students. This information is in page one hundred and forty nine. In his book there is a principle of non-pontification. Here Brown does not actually make pronouncements nor does he pretend that he or somebody else in the field for that particular matter has got all the answers.
He outlines the six variables that may influence the decision of the teacher. This variable must be looked on as general guidelines for judging the want for conscious grammatical focus in the classroom. He is discussing this in page three hundred and fifty. There is also a principle of empathy. This is where he understands how the new teacher might be feeling. At the end of the chapter, he recognizes that the person who reads might feel beset or put off by the view of doing group work in the classroom.
He discusses the principle of reality. Brown recognizes that genuine teachers must always educate in genuine classrooms and in genuine institutions in genuine communities. There is also a principle of readability whereby Brown’s prose is a pleasure to read for the reason that it is clear, brief and to the point. To some point, Brown achieves such readability because he is being generous with the way he uses examples and illustrations, and as well by his conversational as well as lighthearted approach.
There is also a principle of accessibility whereby the book is supposed to be formatted in a way that the content is simple to follow, keep and the additional information appears close to hand. Next is a principle of open-endedness. Here Brown leaves the things open in a manner that invites the participation of a reader and thought of what is being discussed. There is a well a principle of global application. As much as the texts are not applicable to each situation, some texts seem more broadly applicable as compared to others.
Brown avoids a narrow parochialism because he recognizes and respects the wide spectrum of situations, needs, conditions that operate for student and teacher throughout the world. Next is a principle of basis in research. This is where Brown reminds the reader that in that same stage of the professional career when one is learning on how to tech, it is very necessary to lay some basic foundations for the development of an effectual teaching approach. Finally Brown discusses the principle of the integrated whole. He discusses the integrated nature of language and the language learning classroom.
He argues that reading does not actually exist separately from writing or listening from speaking. He discusses further about the various aspects of lesson planning together with the significance of each feature to the general whole. However, the principle does not exist separately from the pedagogy or the practices. Looking back at the twelve principles, it becomes more obvious that experienced teachers can benefit from reading the book. References Brown, D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (3rd ed. ). White Plains: Pearson Education Company.