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Solid waste management is one of the major environmental problems of Indian Urban local bodies. It is linked to health and environment. Solid waste management is the primary duty of Indian urban local body under the 74th constitutional amendment. A solid waste management service is mandatory to be provided by Municipal Corporations and ULBs according to the 74th constitutional amendment. The rudiment objective of sustainable waste management is to protect human health and the environment and to conserve and recover resources.
Additional goals include recycling, resource recovery and prevention of the pollution due to waste. To analyze different mechanisms the researcher has used various research methodologies. The researcher had used both the approaches that in the form of mix research paradigm to get subjective as well objective aspects of the research study. The researcher had used both quantitative and qualitative research approaches to acquire all the information related to the status of solid waste management in Gujarat. The researcher used descriptive research design to collect information regarding the current study .
The primary data collection method was used including the interviews, questionnaire and asked direct questions to the concerned people by directly approaching them. The secondary method of data collection was done by taking references from journals, previous articles, documentaries, and books. It also included the use of digital platform and inclusion of search engines like Google for collecting relevant data. The researcher has selected a simple random sampling method and the sample size was of about 300 respondents which should be shown during the final jury for authentication and verification purpose.
What I believe is because the number of available options for waste collection and treatment is always growing and because the economic conditions, budget constraints are changing often, decision makers are constantly confronted with the following questions: Is the current waste management system the most cost effective method for reaching the goals of waste management? Are there other and better combinations of more advanced processes that can provide an identical service at lower costs using the Indian and Gujarat case study researcher has given a best try to overcome the existing situation of waste management. The researcher had included the names of health officers, experts of SWM and sanitary supervisors to get relevant information about the research study. The sample population included both the children and adults indicate the age group the researcher wants to address. The views, perceptions, visual interpretation and general feedback from all the selected groups were taken into consideration. Thematic presentation tools were used which involved the use of graphs, pie chart and bar graph for the conduction of the data analysis process. Statistical tools like descriptive analysis, regression analysis, mean, median, mode, variance, and covariance analysis, t-test etc. Regression analysis method was also used by the researcher to show the data in an accurate form. The pilot study was carried out which ensures that all the necessary relevant data was taken into consideration. Need-based analysis, Descriptive analysis, and gap analysis were also carried out to collect the necessary information. Theoretical Approaches like Ethnographic Approach, Field Research Approach, and Grounded Theory Approach were also used by the researcher is appreciated by my end. To have a comprehensive assessment of waste collection and transportation systems, it appears necessary to examine all three aspects associated with the term sustainability: social, economic, and environmental aspects. However, depending on the goal of a study, sometimes only 1 or 2 viewpoints were considered, the researcher tried to focus more on the behavioral aspect which is implicit from the work carried out. I would like to critically comment on the way he has worked on the close-ended questionnaire, which suggest that he has taken a comprehensive view after validating the survey questions from the field experts and technically experienced officers. Speaking economically, as an important factor because money, in combination with available technology, is generally the limiting factor for a sophisticated, properly functioning collection and transportation of waste. Economic aspects are mentioned on a business level or on a public level. In the reviewed article the investment and operational costs are evaluated on a macro level, for the benefit and upliftment of common people. Socio-economic perspective was well described in the work for the Gujarat State SWM. However, the study finds more scope to work on the economic analysis of individual vehicles and equipmens. Different regions in the state of Gujarat have different strategies to implement based on the ground conditions of that region. This lack may be a common reason why different waste management strategies, scenarios, and plans are not implemented efficiently. The purpose of considering environmental aspects in waste management (from waste generation over collection, recycling, and treatment to the final disposal) is to evaluate the impacts on air, soil, and water, as well as on resource consumption. To protect humans, flora, and fauna, it is necessary to know the environmental aspects of a service or a process. Researcher has focus on the critical aspect of financial portion, analyzing the optimization of the collection and transportation of vehicles which has a significant impact on the overall waste management of Gujarat. Social sustainability can be classified under three different perspectives: social equity (the equitable distribution of waste management system benefits and detriments between citizens); social acceptability (the waste management system must be acceptable; and social function (the social benefit of waste management systems) which includes the higher cost to find the social optimum for the services demanded by the citizens of Gujarat for waste management. The work distinctly defines all the aspects in a transparent manner. However, public health, hygiene and safety are vital factors within society, with a close link to the environment and to the economy. To get the best efficiency from the equipments at the cost of public safety can’t be justified, which I think should be involved in future research work. Cost -Benefit analysis can also be done for defining the Neo-classical view of decision taking aspect for sustainable technologies in waste management. Social aspects also refer to the employment market, governance, ethics, security, education sys-tems, and to culture. Notably, many evaluated impacts can not only refer to one of the three pillars of sustainability, but also interactions between social, economic, and environmental sustainability are are frequent. Looking in depth and analyzing the report seems at par with other competitive reports I have analyzed and reviewed since times. The report clearly satisfies the objectives and shows a uniqueness of the research work.
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