Smart System for Safety in a Car

Categories: ChemistrySafety
About this essay


As the smart system has been developed in the automobile industries, new features are implemented for the comfort of customer. However, if a car is locked, creating a closed cabin, the un-mindful toddlers and animals (pets), in the car, cannot open the door or windows. The closed car cabin may result in depletion of oxygen (O2). Not only this, but suffocation may occur when the engine compartment is filled with water then it may result in locking of car while the windows are closed.

Concentrating on the problems occurred due to suffocation in car, it reveals that in the closed cabin the oxygen level decreases with a constant speed as the living being inhales the oxygen (O2) and exhales carbon dioxide (CO2), which results in the scarcity of oxygen (O2).

Hence, this proposed work deals with the safety of living being sitting in the closed car cabin, which connects PIR motion sensor, carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor, micro-controller, timer, GSM modem, air blower, car buzzer and power windows.

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The micro-controller will make the decision regarding opening the power windows, turning the buzzer or air blower on and sending electronic alert message through GSM modem. This system will help the toddlers or pets to get out of the car. In critical situations like if the carbon dioxide(CO2) level increases to 0.2% (2000ppm) then an alert message will be send to the nearby hospital, automobile service station or police station and will turn on the car buzzer to inform nearby people.

This system is designed for a car that is air conditioned and has power windows and power locking system.

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This proposed system is cost effective, automated, sophisticated and will certainly help in saving lives with minimal manual help, as well as gives a safe exit in adverse situations. Key Words: PIR motion sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor, Global Positioning System (GSM), Global Mobile System (GSM) and Micro-controller


Many developments are made in automobile industries regarding the comfort of people. However, not all obstacles are overcome. This study focuses on one problem that is suffocation in the closed car cabin, due to dearth of oxygen. The victims of this major problem are, mainly, toddlers, pets, and physically disabled persons because they are not aware of the unlocking system of a car. As the living being inhales oxygen (O2) and exhales carbon dioxide (CO2). The level of carbon dioxide (CO2) increases in the closed car cabin which results in the suffocation of the loved ones. The air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and remaining amount of other gases. The research shows that a living being requires 21% of oxygen (O2) and 0.04% (400 ppm) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in air for normal respiration under normal temperature and pressure.

The chances of occurrence of death starts with the carbon dioxide reached to 4% (40,000 ppm) or above it in the air (or in closed car/room). In between 0.04% to 0.2%, two levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered in this study. The levels measure 0.1% and 0.2%. As the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase from 0.04% to 0.1%, the respiratory rate of a living body increases by 37% but it is relatively safe for the person who acclimates to it. The proposed theory uses a carbon dioxide sensor that detects the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the closed cabin. The increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) level in cabin is harmful for the person. If the level of CO2 reaches 1% to 2%, then the breathing rate becomes deeper (50% than normal). When the CO2 level strikes 3% in air, the person may feel headaches and there will be increase in blood pressure and pulse rate.

The proposed system explains the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring sensor, water sensor and smoke sensor in rescuing the living being from the closed car cabin. This methodology also deals with the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Services for Mobile Application (GSM) interfacing with PIC micro-controller and its series. The water sensor is used to detect the water reaching to the engine, which will result in locking of the car in the position as it is. This will eventually create a closed cabin and will lead to increase in carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, to avoid this, the water sensor will sensor the water and will, immediately, open the windows and will unlock the doors of the car. The smoke sensor is used to detect the smoke in car. Now a day, the youth is being addicted to cigarette smoking in car with the windows close. This may result in setting the car on fire; hence the smoke sensor will sense the smoke and according will open the windows of car.


Many developments are made in automobile industries regarding the comfort of people. However, not all obstacles are overcome. Thus, this study focuses on one problem that is suffocation in the closed car cabin, due to dearth of oxygen. The victims of this major problem are mainly toddlers (Children), pets, and physically disabled persons as they are not aware of the unlocking system of a car. Hence, because of that CO2 level be increase which may cause suffocation of living being. As suffocation can also occure due to presence of smoke in closed cabin and the some fatal situation when car gets locked.

Several problems with the car system have been identified and according to that by using some methodology (IOT Components) this problem will overcome. Additionally, it improves the safety of living being by interfacing with various IOT components

Problem Definition

Unawareness of unlocking system of car and the increase in carbon dioxide level in the closed car cabin leads to the suffocation of pets or toddlers or loved ones. The incident of freezing ice-creams kept in the closed car with a kid sleeping in car showed that the sudden rise in CO2 level resulted in the suffocation of child. The freeze ice-creams are nothing but freeze CO2 that started releasing in the air. Therefore, the increased level of CO2 in the car led to the death of child. No rescue measures were taken by the time to save him, and this fatal accident occurred. The related news like this,

  1. The real life examples are captured in the following news from NDTV, “Two Children Get Trapped In Car, Die Of Suffocation In Buldhana, Maharashtra [Date: 16 July 2019]” and “Shocking News is Husky locked in car for two hours in suffocating 820F heat before police break in to set it free [Date: 18 July 2018]”. The suffocation due to depletion in oxygen (O2) level with a constant rate because the living being inhales oxygen (O2) and exhales carbon dioxide (CO2). According to researchers, living being requires 21% of O2 and 0.04% (400ppm) of CO2 in the air for normal respiration. At the level of 420ppm (0.042%) to 1000ppm (1%) of CO2, the living being’s respiration rate increases by 37%. When CO2 start increasing from 1000ppm (1%) – 2000ppm (2%), the breathing rate become deeper (50% than normal) and the living being start feeling drowsiness. There are chances of death when the carbon dioxide (CO2) reaches to 4% (40,000 ppm) or above level in the air tight car.
  2. The victims of this trap are not only kids and pets but also adults. The news from NDTV, “267 deluge of 2005 in which an entire family in Juhu had died of suffocation inside their vehicle on a waterlogged street after the doors failed to open due to power failure” throbbed the hearts of Mumbai citizens and passed an alarming message. The car’s power failed because the water went in the engine and locked the car in the position as it was. This resulted in locked car with closed windows and hence, they died due to suffocation. Though they found their own solution to this; now they carry a hammer with them while driving car but this awkward solution cannot be adopted by infants and pets locked in car. Furthermore this is crude method and many a times a person locked in car find it difficult to trace the hammer stored in the car in panic situation.
  3. The next news from ABC told that, “Fire-fighter called two ‘freak’ accidents caused by cigarettes in 12 hour period [Date: 19 Jan 2019]”. Smoking in closed car and throwing the cigarette butt in rear tray, caused a disastrous accident by setting the car on fire. The persons could be saved but in this panic situation, their mind couldn’t find ways out of it and so, they died.

To overcome situations like this, a system is proposed to rescue the human being using the technology IOT (GPS and GSM) with minimal power consumption to operate power car windows while the car is locked.

Aim and Objectives

  •  To add new features in smart car for comfort of customer.
  •  The system first deals with the PIR Motion Sensor to check is it living being present or not and further CO2, Water and Smoke sensors get activate.
  •  CO2 Sensor can measure the level of Carbon Dioxide, Water sensor check water is present or not whereas Smoke sensor check the presence smoke according to that give the alert message to predefine number and according to that provide the various services.
  •  The proposed system focuses on preventing the suffocation or death of living being.
Cite this page

Smart System for Safety in a Car. (2019, Nov 24). Retrieved from

Smart System for Safety in a Car
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