This chapter shows the related review literatures about the concept of self-sufficiency, its relevance, its advantages and disadvantages, its relevance, its interrelatedness to other studies, its growth among adolescents and how it affects their decision-making.
According to Stott (1938), self-reliance is the highest desirable trait of personality as a child grows from babyhood to adolescence. During this stage, the child normally develops himself slowly from being dependent to his parents towards being assertive of his own decisions.
Factors such as his environment, affects his ways of thinking as it molds and forms completely to a new one concluding that achieving self-reliance depends entirely upon his home enviroment (Stott, 1938). Meanwhile, the child’s parent as a factor plays an important role as the child watches and learns from his parent daily (Samudio, n. d.).
As the child forms his morals, he starts to think and act for himself trusting his sense of judgment and introspection altogether on different aspects of life (Sandhu, n.
d.). It is very likely that the kid will become more keen into learning new things and applying them on to his daily life.
Moreover, Sandhu (n. d.) defines an extremely reliant child as someone who possesses the means to cope in any extreme situations using his own problem solving skills. Although the signs may be evident in a very young age, worrying parents has to know that self-reliance among children is something that should be more encouraged as it trains them to be more responsible of their own actions (Frederick, 2016).
However, adolescents don’t learn responsibility overnight (Paxton, 2006). Athough most of then want to feel independent, they would only perceive things one-sided, disregarding the possibilies of what could possibly go wrong (Akbosh, 2019).
For example, about 50% of freshman in 4-year colleges fail to graduate as they foot out themselves independently for the first time (Pickhardt, 2015). Pickhardt (2015) stressed that parents should focus more on informing their children when it comes to safely navigating their children from different harms of life.
According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, self-sufficiency is defined as “able to maintain oneself without outside aid” (Butcher, 2016). It is synonymous to doing everything by yourself such as making your own tools, growing your own food, and making your own electricity.
Being self-sufficient also means not needing others’ help in order to sustain our basic needs emotionally and intellectually (“Self Sufficiency: One of the most important gifts we give our kids, 2014). Interestingly, it is also the belief of being able to take care of yourself as well as those people around you who might need your help.
Psychologically speaking, self-sufficiency means the quality of feeling secure and contentment with oneself which gives the inner completeness and stability to the individual (Taylor, 2015). It is compared to ‘secure self-esteem’, the feeling of worthiness of a person and the fundamental wholeness of his well-being.
As Taylor (2015) defines, self-sufficient people have strong inner sense of control or the ability to make his own decisions, even if it goes against the expectations of other people upon him. In addition, self-sufficient people likes to enjoy their own company where they always find their own solitude blissful. It only concludes that self-sufficient people are hard to please as they are authentic themselves and doesn’t seem to have the interest to impress others.
Self-sufficient people should have the skill and ability of being independent or the practice to support their own needs without any assistance of their relatives and family. They added that the persons who are self-sufficient are the one who can save more money. Furthermore, being skilled can’t consider as self-sufficient person. It requires passion, motivation and discipline in order to be independent. (The CensAble Shoppin, 2019)
According to Rachael Wright (2017), self-sufficiency is the key to define their own path, to create their personal choices, instead of having life decided by others. She also added that the person who are self-sufficient can be advantage especially when they became as they early as they can. Moreover, Self-confidence and self-efficacy is being able to understand the social capacity of a person in order to learn, improve and survive which is connected to self-sufficiency.
However, being self-sufficient have also advantages and disadvantages. Lizjansen (2015) stated that there are seven pros and cons. Advantages; self-confidence, which encourages emotional, mental and physical condition of a person. It allows individual to overcome their challenges rather than to give up.
Then financial matters and freedom wherein these both help people to feel independent but requires exercising appropriately. Next is being flexible of a person can produce a bigger options or choices in selecting alternatives. Lastly, the three: convenience, resilience and resourcefulness are also advantaging for the reason that it’s less frustrating in resolving problems, less expensive and the person can sort ideas or things easily; without and hesitations.
Yet, the consequences might be pressuring the individuals in terms of the following; seeking for help to others could be difficult for them, Disconnection to their peers may possibly be happened, loneliness, financial assistance and effectiveness on living independent as like what John Donne said that no man is an island, we should live with other people in order to proper.
Paxton (2018) emphasized that, self-reliant students are often become independent in their choices or decision-making. They are more focused, confident in their skills and ability, goal oriented and dedicated to their learning. Meanwhile, others become self-sufficient in their own.
She added that students must responsible in turning out self-sufficient in order to encourage them in living independently. This will serve as an understanding on their tasks, schedule and roles. This enables them to plan and prepare for their days. She stated also that to be independently, people must be accepts their own missteps and shortcomings. Learn to accept challenges and consequences in life.
With this, stop blaming others or creating excuses on their actions but take corrective move instead (Paxton, 2018). She also stressed that people must know the purpose of his/her life. The purpose must be inclined with the aspects that they will focus such as time, efforts, action and realistic goals in order to be established their selves in persistent manners.
As cited by Vilorio (2016), Most of the students especially in college choose to off during college, staying in dormitories with classmates as well as with their roommates. He also said that young adults began to leave their home as their adulthood turns.
“You soon learn that you can’t have everything you want” (Ranzetta, 2014). This only tells that self-sufficiency begins with the financial independence. Half of the people ages 18 – 24 are still living in their parents – compared to 15 percent of those ages 25 – 34. They also stressed that living independently, means that duties and responsibilities is in persons shoulder.
Yet, to be self-sufficient is about chances of growing as an individual. Additionally, they also expressed that there are other aspects base on the average expenditures by age group such as in housing, transportation, food, education, pensions and social security, entertainment, apparel and services, healthcare and others personal expenditures. This is orderly arrange base on the range of expenses in given aspects. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2015, as cited in Vilorio, 2016).
According to a study by Evans, Llewellyn, Matthews, Woods, Brayne and Clare 2019, People who live alone have the greater possibilities to be isolated from family and report that more of them felt loneliness than those living with others. However, they also added that these persons living independently involve in more societal actions or activity than others who live with their peers.
The proportion of people living alone in later life continues to increase as a result of people ageing, decreased family dimensions, and government policies that promote ageing in place (Genet et al., 2011; Hays, 2002; Murphy & Grundy, 2003 as cited in Evans et al. 2019, pp. 222-223).
Ageing in place is defined as the ability of an person to live in their houses alone, in safety, and comfortably, regardless of age, income, or level of ability (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2014 as cited in Evans t al. 219, pp.222 -223).
Ageing at home as an alternative to institutional care enables people to maintain autonomy, independence, and connection with family, friends, and the wider community (Wiles, Leibing, Guberman, Reeve, & Allen, 2012 as cited in Evans et al. 2019, pp 222- 223).
Ageing in place is preferable to policy makers, healthcare providers, and older people and their families alike, as it avoids the costly alternative of institutional care and can provide a sense of attachment, security, and familiarity which contributes to positive wellbeing and quality of life (Sixsmith & Sixsmith, 2008; World Health Organization, 2007 as cited in Evans et al. 2019 pp. 222 – 223).
People who live alone in later life may be more vulnerable in terms of social, behavioural, functional, and socioeconomic factors (Bergland & Engedal, 2011; Haslbeck, McCorkle, & Schaeffer, 2012; Hughes & Waite, 2002; Shaw, Fors, Fritzell, Lennartsoon, & Agahi, 2017 as cited in Evans et al. 2019, pp. 222 – 223).
Ageing in place may prolong good social relationships with friends, family, and engagement with the wider community. However, for people living alone, ageing in place may lead to some negative experiences including social isolation, loneliness, and poor social networks, which may limit an individuals ability to live alone successfully in later life.
The Sustainable Baby Steps (2019) stated that living independently is the ability of providing all of your own needs without outside resources. It relies on the quantity of knowledge and skills, as well as the spirit of independence and determination. Those who choose to be independent tend to be passionate about their reasons.
According to Vilorio (2016), many high school graduates go off to college, others enter the labor force right away, and other moves to a place of their own. Young adults leave home as they move further into adulthood.
The U.S. Census Bureau (2015) showed that half of people from ages 18 to 24 lived with their parents compared to 15 percent of people from ages 25 to 34. It says that living on your own, you should prepare and expect some of the issues you might face as you become independent and it includes the managing your money, initiate yourself at work, and finding a suitable place for you to live.
He also stated that living on your own is taking a new responsibility as an individual but at the same time it is your time for yourself to grow as a person.
The following are the considerations when you are planning to be move in another place alone: (a) Expenses. Self-sufficient begins the financial independence. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014), having your own house is considered for about one-third of total expenses for young adults.
The expenses in transportation and foods were another one-third of the daily cost; (b) Finances. Managing money is a crucial skill because your financial state can influence many of your decisions. Saving money will help you keep on solid financial ground; (c) Budgeting.
Before you manage your money, you have to know what your finances are. Know how much you will get every payday and the amount of the bills you need to pay. Budgeting can motivate you to spend wisely and buy only what you can afford.
The ACS Distance Education (2019) coined that in reality,we will never be totally independent for one reason because it is in our nature to socialize and interact with the people around us.
However, it also stated that you can control your own destiny by doing two simple things as enumerated: First, increase your capacity to provide the goods and services you desired on your own. Second, make a difference in your attitude and lifestyle to lessen the demands we face upon ourselves to provide the needs on our own.
Schiller (2017) coined that there are link between education and self sufficiency of a student. Quality and stable housing is a foundation for self-sufficiency.
Furthermore, children who move frequently are often perform worse in school because according to him stable housing can allow adults to enter the workforce and pursue the higher education and at the same time develop a new skills. He also added that poverty is the reason why most of the students nowadays choose to be self sufficient in order for them to live and give support for their family.
In addition, Taylor (2017) said that middle schoolers is experiencing lack of self sufficiency because according to her it is not being practiced during elementary school. In middle school, it should be the time where teachers and parents let the students to handle their schooling on their own but they are accounted to guide and help them accomplish their goal.
Cite this essay
Self-Sufficiency: Essential Aspect of Well-Being. (2019, Dec 19). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/self-sufficiency-essential-aspect-of-well-being-essay