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Perspectives in the Implementation of the Enhanced K-12 Basic Education

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 7 (1732 words)
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The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of the three nations that has a ten year pre-university education program before the implementation of the K-12 system. K-12 program indicates a good quality of education especially for the standard of our education system worldwide, qualification to work abroad and development of skills in employment. The problem in implementation of K-12 in the Philippines is the preparedness of the Filipino people to study with this procedure of quality education.

For furthermore information let’s define first what is K-12.

a. WHAT IS K-12

The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.[1] It means that there will be additional two levels in high school.

It is believed that K-12 would place the Philippine education system at par with the international standard and contribute to the improvement of a better educated society that is capable of pursuing productive employment, entrepreneurship, or higher education studies.

The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our country’s graduates as the ten-year basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professionals in other countries in the view that ten-year education program in insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle.[1]


The K-12 basic education curriculum is said to be enhanced to become learner-centered, responsive and enriched. The education must be learner-centered, focusing on the optimum development of every Filipino student. Another thing is to be responsive in our local needs to enrich the integrative, inquiry-based, constructivist, and technology-enhancement of our society. Here’s the sequence of accompanying K-12 from kindergarten to new high school years 5-6. In kindergarten, they’re going to teach the fundamental learning that a child need.

From grade 1 they are going to teach the core learning areas such as mother tongue until grade 3, starting grade 3 focusing on major subjects like science and learning about edukasyong pantahan at pangkabuhayan that will start at grade 4 up to 6. Grades 7- 8 (new high school year 1-2) will be focused on Core Learning Areas and Exploratory Technology & Livelihood Education, next is grade levels 9-10 (new high school year 3-4) which is focused also in Core Learning Areas plus elective Technology & Livelihood Education. Last is the additional two year levels the grade 11 and 12 which is focusing on major subjects like Math, Science, English, Contemporary issues and specializations.

c. FEATURES (Learning Areas)

i. The new Features of K-12 basic education curriculum are: * Vertical continuum and horizontal articulation of competencies * Mother Tongue as a learning are and medium of instruction * Spiral progression in Science and Math

* MAPEH(Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health) begins in Grade 1


* Mother tongue – this is the native language of the students in the region. It is used as the medium of instruction in all subjects except Filipino and English, it is also taught as a separate subject from Grades One to Three. * English & Filipino – from Grade four onwards this is used to enhanced listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The ultimate goal is the communicative competence of Filipino to both oral and written in three languages. * Mathematics, Araling Panlipunan, MAPEH – From grade 1, these subjects are given to know the basic concepts and ideas, skills, and values necessary for artistic expression and cultural literacy.

* Science, and Technology & Livelihood Education – From Grade 3 Science is now implied to develop scientific literacy among students that will prepare them to be informed and participative citizens who are able to make judgments and decisions regarding applications of scientific knowledge that may have social, health, or environmental impacts. For the Technology & Livelihood Education that will start at Grade 4 to involve students to develop knowledge, skills, values and attitude in Agriculture.[2]


a. CONSTITUTIONAL BASIS (Article XIV , Section 1 and 2) The constitutional basis of the implementation of K-12 is found at Article XIV, Section 1 and 2. Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Section 2. The State shall:

(1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; (2) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age;

(3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged; (4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and (5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.[3]

This article of the Philippine Constitution supports the endeavor of improving the quality of education in the Philippines. It also aims to uplift educational standard to produce competent Filipino students that can compete and be at par with other countries. b. Reasons for implementing K-12

Why add two more years?

Adding two more years will decongest the basic education curriculum and will provide better quality education for all. K to 12 is not new, the proposal for it dates back to 1925. It will be minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still hoping to have their children find a good paying job. With this, parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. In this form, parents will not consume for 2 years of basic education that will give them an employable child. In effect, we are saving parents 2 years of expenses. The plan is not “Plus 2 years before graduation” but “Minus 2 years before work”. What will society gain from K to 12?

K to 12 will assist in accelerating the economic growth since it directs students to choose courses that response to the local needs of the society. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development.


c. Positive aspects of K-12
i. Argument No.1 (Philippines will have a 12-year basic education program)

In adding two more years in our educational system in the Philippines, I think there’s no problem because we need to upgrade the standard of our education just like the other country have. Because in Asia, only Philippines has a 10-year educational program and Philippines is one of the three countries in the world didn’t already have a 12-year educational system, which is the basis of some other countries abroad in ignoring Filipino to work for them or they don’t recognized the professionalism of the Filipino because of their educational background, for some countries 10-year educational program is insufficient. Some other thing in K-12 educational program, the procedure for further learning is much more productive because it applies Mother Tongue which is the language spoke by a person in his province or territory.

ii. Argument No.2 (Includes MTBMLE or Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education in the curriculum)

This process will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten up to grade three. English and Filipino is the medium of instruction in grade four.[2] For grades 1 to 3 It’s easy to learn topics when the speaker is using the language from their province. Mother Tongue is used as the first point for literacy development of the student.

d. Negative aspects of K-12
iii. Argument No.1 (Insufficient qualified teachers to teach in the K-12 program and availability of more classrooms)

Lack of teachers and classrooms are the most common problems before the implementation of K-12 program, and then until now this problem I think will continuously on going because of K-12 program. There will be additional 2 years so it means number of classrooms in each school must increase. Number of teachers since then was not enough to fulfill the needs of our country in education. So where are we going to seek for teachers to teach In the K-12 program? The government must pay attention for this argument if they really want to implement K-12.

iv. Argument No.2 (Unavailable materials such as textbooks and curriculum designed for K-12)

Textbooks using Mother Tongue is one of the problems to be pursue by an action in implementing K-12. Government must produce textbooks that will act as the guide of the students to their studies. For example a Filipino Mathematics book or Bicolano Fundamental Mathematics book. Those are only example but that’s the truth in this argument, textbooks using Mother Tongue.


I therefore concluded that lets give a chance in implementing K-12 basic education program in the Philippines, it’s not just going to add two more year levels to suffer more in our education but also it standardize our educational system worldwide, strengthen our academics subjects, enhance our literacy through multilingualism, and also work readiness using Senior High School(SHS). As far as I know several schools already produced teachers to teach in the K-12 program but they are few, we need thousands of teachers. Just give a chance then let’s see what will be the result of this program. We don’t know, if K-12 is the way for a better quality and accessible education here in the Philippines. Let’s be responsible in our local needs and especially in our education.


[1] The K to 12 Education Program . (2012) . K-12 . Retrieved august 19, 2012 , from http://www.gov.ph/k-12/

[3] The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines . (1987) . Article XIV , Section 1-2 . Retrieved September 4, 2012 , from http://www.gov.ph/the-philippine-constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-r

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Perspectives in the Implementation of the Enhanced K-12 Basic Education. (2017, May 25). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/perspectives-in-the-implementation-of-the-enhanced-k-12-basic-education-essay

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