Despite the implementation of numerous measures aimed at preventing and combating illegal immigration, over the past decades its scale in the world has not remained at the same level, but, on the contrary, has increased significantly. The majority of the developed countries of the world are compelled to fight violations of migration laws. However, it is not easy to determine the real scale of illegal processes, so nobody can tell the exact number of illegal immigrants.
In conformity with various estimates, illegal immigrants constitute 10-15% of the number of migrants in the world; the United States accounts for about 22%.
Like any social problem, illegal immigration is caused by a complex of factors. As a rule, the causes of illegal migration are rooted in the deep mechanisms of society. This is the socio-economic background, political changes, moral and psychological problems.
All of the above confirms that illegal immigration is a characteristic phenomenon of modern reality and causes its structural inseparability. Currently, illegal immigration has become a stable and large-scale phenomenon that has a significant impact on the socio-economic and political processes in many countries of the modern world.
The expansion of the scale of the illegal component of migration processes introduces a serious imbalance in ensuring the national security of the state. All this causes the growing interest in the problems of illegal immigration from the state and political figures, stimulates further strengthening of measures in the field of counteracting illegal immigration.
If society and authorities recognize that it is impossible to isolate themselves from the influx of migrants, realizing at the same time that this process is extremely dangerous, the only way out, in conformity with experts, is to develop a management strategy.
The essence of the strategy is simple. It implies to minimize losses and maximize benefits. In other words, it is indispensable to create the opportunity to receive so many migrants so that it would be beneficial to the economy and not threaten the security of a person, society, and the state. Proceeding from this, the strategy implementation tool should be formed and applied.
Given that the country will not only need additional workers’ hands but in the additional population, such a tool as the integration of migrants acquires great importance. Spontaneous integration is already taking place; it will continue. The only question is whether it will remain a spontaneous process, often taking place in forms far from legitimacy, or it will occur on the terms and forms proposed by the host society and the state. There are three main areas of integration.
The initial one is naturalization. This process should include the acquisition by the largest possible number of migrants of the legal status of residence and economic activities in a particular country; сreation of the largest possible number of such statuses from a temporary work visa to a residence permit; an opportunity to obtain a citizenship to those who demonstrated their law-abiding and economic utility; and differentiated approach to naturalization to different groups and types of migrants.
The second area is cultural integration. It involves the perception of migrants language, the foundations of culture, basic customs, values, norms of conduct.
The third field is an economic integration. The migrant should become part of the economic organism of the country; he should spend the incomes received, invest, and not export all these earnings to the historic homeland.
Integration can become a strategic way of reducing crime among migrants to a socially acceptable level. Only official and effective state protection of as many migrants as possible can lead them out of control of organized crime. Only the maximum legalization can solve the problem of illegal migration, as a phenomenon that undermines the foundations of statehood, which destroys the economy of the host society. This will also significantly reduce the field of corruption.
This does not eliminate the need to wage a tough fight against violators, to have effective power structures for this purpose endowed with significant rights and powers, resources for their implementation. The key to implementing such a policy is the development, adoption and effective implementation of migration legislation.
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