Oral surgery has been clearly defined as a specialty of dentistry that deals with and includes the diagnosis, surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries and some defects that are involving both the functional and aesthetic aspects of both the hard and soft tissues of the oral and the maxillofacial region.
The diagnostic, surgical and adjunctive treatments of these body parts are always done by a specialist known as an oral and maxillofacial surgeon whose surgical expertise and thorough understanding of both aesthetics and function uniquely qualify them to diagnose, treat and manage the conditions, defects, injuries, and the aesthetic aspects of the mouth, teeth, jaws and face.
( Blum, ! 966)
The oral and maxillofacial surgeon is very important people in our communities and therefore qualifications and enrollment as one is well regulated by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), this association only recognizes surgeons who are graduates from accredited dental school and has completed further four or more trainings in an accredited, hospital-based oral and maxillofacial surgery residency program.
The American Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons have the mandate to register and deregister only qualified members to the association , this is being done to ensure that patience get good quality and timely attendance. In the course of offering good quality aesthetic services to the patience the body always ensures that constant research are done to ensure and improve efficiency of their services. They do this by offering continuous support to their member’s ability to practice their specialty through education, research and advocacy.
To maintain the standards of surgical and other services to their patience the members comply with rigorous continuing education requirements and submit to periodic office examinations, ensuring the public that all office procedures and personnel meet stringent national standards, (Blum,2003) The oral and maxillofacial surgeon deal with different the preventive, reconstructive or emergency care for the teeth, mouth, jaws and associated facial structures.
These conditions as Dent alveolar Surgery, Reconstructive Surgery, Dental Implants, Facial Infections, Facial Trauma, TMJ Disorders and Facial Pain, Oral Pathology, Snoring/Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Facial Cosmetic Surgery. (Blum,2003) The trainings of surgeons incorporate extensive anesthesia training that enables oral and maxillofacial surgeons to perform a wide variety of procedures in both an office setting and a hospital environment.
Local anesthesia, nitrous oxide, intravenous sedation and general anesthesia are competently and safely administered in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office and appropriately selected to meet the requirements of the patient and the procedure. Office-based surgery is often the most efficient and cost effective way to perform many procedures while maintaining maximum patient comfort and safety. The services and medical conditions that are shown above, Dent alveolar Surgery; This is medical and surgical service that the management of teeth diseases and the hard and sold tissues that are supporting it.
The surgeons also deal with the impacted teeth’s. This is mostly a problem that is associated with third molars or wisdom teeth. This is because they are the last teeth to typically and develop and erupt into the mouth. The typical problems that are experienced with people with impacted teeth are pain, swelling and signs of infection in the surrounding tissues. An impacted tooth has the potential to cause permanent damage to adjacent teeth, gum tissue and supporting bone structure.
Impacted teeth are also associated with the development of cysts and tumors that can destroy large portions of the jaw. Many times impacted wisdom teeth are not treated until symptoms are present; but a recent study conducted by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Foundation indicates that third molars should be removed by the time the patient is a young adult in order to prevent related gum disease or other problems.
It is indicated that through the oral and maxillofacial surgery, a solid foundation can be provided for dental rehabilitation, which in turn aids nutrition and speech. The implants may be used to replace lost teeth and other structures. Implants can also be used to anchor both oral and facial prostheses (Blum, 2003) Other problems that are checked by the oral and maxillofacial surgeons reconstructive Surgery; this is the correction of a condition that by inadequate borne structure in the upper or lower or both jaws.
It can result from trauma, injury, tumor surgery or from long term denture-wear. The condition is rectified by using the borne grafts from either the patience own borne or borne substitutes. The surgeon ca n improves both the quantity and quality of the hard tissue. During this condition the surgeons can also utilize both the skin grafts and soft tissues to improve the architecture of the soft tissues in the oral and maxillofacial regions. The surgeons as indicated above, oral and maxillofacial surgeons are trained and have the capability of diagnosing and treating of the facial pain.
The facial pain is mainly caused by a disease or dysfunction temporomandibular joint (TMJ). TMJ is located where the lower jaws and skull meet. It is the ball and socket joint that enables the lower jaw (mandible) to move and function. TMJ disorders display a number of symptoms that may include earaches, headaches, and a limited range of movement. Patients may also complain of clicking or grating sounds in the joint, or pain when opening or closing their mouths.
The main courses of TMJ disorders can be degenerative (osteoarthritis), traumatic (cartilage displacement or injury), inflammatory (rheumatoid arthritis), or it is just stress related. It is also common among other patience to experience a combination of both muscles and joint problems. The problem is properly being diagnosed and treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons through conducting of clinical examination and utilizing a number of diagnostic procedures, including imaging studies (radiograph, CT, MRI).
Usually, non-surgical management (soft diet, anti-inflammatory drugs, physical and/or bite splint therapy) is the first step. For certain conditions, joint surgery may be an appropriate option (Blum, 2003) Other medical conditions that needs the expertise of an oral or maxillofacial surgeon is Snoring/Obstructive Sleep Apnea this is a condition which occur during sleep and is common to a large number of the population approximately 45%. It ca n range from just snoring to periods of true apnea, where breathing ceases for a brief period of time.
Obstructive sleep apnea can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness, poor work performance and such cardiovascular disorders as hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are trained to diagnose and treat this condition. (Anchher, 1966) The surgeons help in number of conditions in the correction of some facial infections. Infections that are in the maxillofacial region can develop into life-threatening emergencies if not treated promptly and effectively.
Pain and swelling in the face, jaws or neck may indicate an infection of dental or related origin. If the infection is severe, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is able to work within the hospital setting to diagnose and treat the problem. For less severe infections, evaluation and treatment may be done in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office. It is indicated that depending on the diagnosis and severity of the case, oral and maxillofacial surgeons may work with other specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.
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