Muscular system in Porifera
Porifera are most commonly known as sponges due to the appearance that they portray. Sponges lack a true muscle system but they still have some proteins that are present in muscle cells. These proteins are involved in regulating the circulation of water through the sponge’s pores. One of them is a type of myosin that is essential for this function. (BARNES)
Muscular system in Cnidaria
Cnidaria is a phylum that includes familiar hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones and corals.
The cnidarians possess two basic metazoan structural features. The muscular system of cnidarians is not incredibly complex due to their basic body structure. In order to make movements they rely on jet propulsion system.
This system works in this way-it takes in water through the rim present in the bottom of their bell. Once this water has been taken in the muscles squeeze the water out. These muscles are usually only one-cell thick and not very strong.so their locomotion pathways are merely controlled by them and is majorly controlled by the water currents.
Muscular system in Platyhelminthes
Platyhelminthes are generally known as flatworms, are eukaryotic organisms and are characterised by a triangular head, a soft flat body and are considered to be among the most basic phylum of the Animal kingdom. Platyhelminthes show three types of muscles- circular, diagonal or longitudinal. These muscles, are attached to a body skeleton are usually located in a gastrovascular cavity. Most of them move by twisting and turning, with the exception of some parasites which move by attaching themselves to the hosts.
The three basic muscle types seen are in-
Muscular system in Phylum Aschelminthes
The body wall of Aschelminthes is musculature that is hardly longitudinal although some phyla show the presences of longitudinal and circular muscles namely, Gastrotrich and Acanthocephali. The linear gut of Aschelminthes has a non-muscular mouth and an anus.
Class Nematoda: (Eg: Ancylostoma Duodenale)(SABHARWALA)
Nematodes shows the presences of muscular system. The presences of muscles in roundworm permit it to bend its body from side to side and move smoothly besides crawling or lifting it selves. The entire length of the body is stretched by long muscles that are initiated beneath the epidermis and the ventral and the dorsal nerve control the muscles of Nematoda that run along the entire length of the body of roundworm.
Unlike most other organism, the nerves do not branch out into the muscles but relatively the muscles branch into the nerves. The mouth of the nematodes opens into the muscular cavity (pharynx) where food is taken in and crushed in further leading into a lengthy gut cavity lacking any muscles and then excretes through an anus near the tip of the body. In nematodes, the circular muscles are absent because of the presences of longitudinal contraction on one side of the worm. Circular muscles do not contract under the cuticle.
Muscular system in Phylum Annelida
Annelids are also known as segmented worms because all of its species are bilaterally segmented, equally segmented and consists of longitudinal and circular muscles that permits the organism to twist and turn for locomotion as well as digestive, circulatory, excretory system and has a complete nervous. Circular and longitudinal muscles are present between the epidermis and the other organs. These species show the presences of circular muscles around the body.
The front ends of annelid are often built up muscles that act as heart. Circular muscles help them to move by making waves of contraction that go along the body so that the annelid can push it selves forward. These muscles help them to push the food down into the digestive tracts and it also sends ripples down the segments which permit them to move. They have small limbs and hair on their epidermis known as setae which helps them to move. Class Oligochaeta: (Eg: Earthworm)
These species under the class Oligochaeta consist of longitudinal muscles and circular muscles that permit them to move. The muscular system presents in them not only permit them to move but is also helpful in pushing the food down into their digestive tract. They and also help them move as much as they can. Due to their muscular wall they are strong enough to break through the soil.
The longitudinal muscle is the layer of muscle present under the skin whereas circular muscles are present under the longitudinal muscles. These muscles work together in to order to expand and contract. The longitudinal muscles that run along the length of the body help to stimulate wave like movement and the circular muscles compress inward while stretching out. This movement them the organism to push forward.Class Polychaete: (Eg: Nereis)
The muscular system of polychaete consists of circular and longitudinal muscles of the body wall. These muscles form in specialised organs in the body of species. They are located diagonally lined with non-contractile parts on the narrow sides of the body. Class Hirudinea: (Eg: Leech)
The species under these class Hirudinea are segmented worms initiated with two suckers (posterior and anterior suckers) on the both end of the body that helps them to attach to the victim and drain their blood. The leech is similar to earthworm it consists of longitudinal and circular muscles fibres that contract in order to permit the movement along with a diagonal muscle between the layers of circular and longitudinal muscle. They have muscular suckers and jaws that permit them to clasps on to their victim and suck the blood. (GAUR, 2017)
Muscular system in Arthropoda
The muscular system of Arthropoda consists of an invertebrate species with an external skeleton. The segments on their body make impact on both the internal and external structures. The exoskeleton provides a large surface area for the attachment of muscles, which in turn can build up tension and effect contraction with very little change in length, i.e. they are isometric. (Moore, 2006). The muscles are usually straited.
Organisms from class Crustacea have muscular system like normal Arthropoda structure as well as other parts too. They use striated muscles to enable rapid movement. This allows them to move quickly and easily. They use flexors and extensors muscles. Flexors are muscles which “straighten out” certain areas of the organism such as the tail or the appendage. Extensors are muscles that “pull in” different structures. These muscles allow Crustaceans to move their body parts in different directions.
Crustaceans all contain strong muscles on opposite sides of the stomach in order to get control over the mandibles which allows the organism to crush, chew, and eat their food. Certain organisms like the crayfish, lobster, and shrimp have abdominal flexors that allow them to swim backwards. Crustaceans ability to move is totally dependent on the muscular system because it enables their ability to move. (muscular system, n.d.)
Muscular system in Mollusca
Foot is one of the main muscular organs inside of Mollusca that allows the movement. The muscular system is primarily made up of the foot. (muscular system , n.d.) The single muscular foot is found in the underside of the body. This foot not only helps the animal move around but also helps in the suction and burrowing.
The basics of this phylum’s muscular system compromises of contracting and expanding that allows for the movement of various bodily functions necessary for survival.Some very small molluscs are propelled by cilia on the foot. At the larval stages these organisms have cilia as the means of locomotion. (Moore, 2006)
Among the classes, organisms belonging to the class gastropod have their foot at their ventral side which allows them to move around. The muscular foot is lubricated with mucus which makes it easy to move or glide upon. They are also able to be retracted through a retractor muscle. While organisms like squids and octopus’ belonging to the class cephalopod, have their foot located at the ends of their 2 tentacles. They are able to squeeze through any hole or crevice as long as it’s larger than their beak. (MUSCULAR ; SKELETAL SYSTEM, n.d.) .
In classes polyplacophoran and aplacophora have a much simpler muscular organization that is, together with the body wall musculature, mainly it comprises of serially repeated dorsoventral muscles. (Maik Scherholz, 2013). Organisms from class Pelecypods burrow and move from place to another by means of the foot, which can be extended from the anterior end of the shell. (HEGNER)
Muscular system in Hemichordates
The adult Hemichordate body is distributed into proboscis, collar and trunk. The colour bear tentacle-like plumes, which may have a double row of ciliated tentacles well supplied with secretory cells.
Muscular systems in Echinoderms
The Echinoderms are spiny-skinned. Some special stars such as brittle stars have sensitive tips on their arms. As to their skeletal and muscle system, echinoderms have tentacle-like structures that are called “tube feet” with suction pads on their tube-feet This shows how the muscular system also relates to how they work and their body shape.