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Linguistics Essay Examples

Chomsky Transformational-Generative Linguistics and Halliday Systemic Functional Linguistics

...To summarize, transformational-generative linguistics and systemic functional linguistics are two influential but quite contrasting approaches to linguistic study and reflect the two trends in linguistics development, providing an innovative value and important significance. TG grammar belongs to formalism which considers language and languages independently of other activities of communication, while systemic functional grammar inherits from functionalism which emphasizes that language are mani...

Linguistics

...Some of the commonest terms, e. g. deep structure, foregrounding, have little or no experimental support. {2} Linguistics has rather different objectives, moreover: to study languages in their entirety and generality, not their use in art forms. Stylistic excellence — intelligence, originality, density and variety of verbal devices — play their part in literature, but aesthetics has long recognized that other aspects are equally important: fidelity to experience, emotional shaping, significa...

Historical linguistics

...Although linguistics is the scientific study of language, a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to language and intersect with it.Semiotics, for example, is the general study of signs and symbols both within language and without. Literary theorists study the use of language in literature. Linguistics additionally draws on and informs work from such diverse fields as acoustics, anthropology, biology,computer science, human anatomy, informatics, neuroscience, philosophy, psycholo...

Applied linguistics

...Rather than discursive statements like “A sentence is made up of a subject and a predicate”, a compact formula may be given, for example:. These formulas are called rules. For the initiated they make a description very precise; the symbolization, however, must be mastered, particularly the abbreviations and the use of signs to indicate relationships. Such grammatical formats may resemble mathematical essays. Yet the information in the rules, however compact, simply corresponds to description...

Corpus Linguistics

...Our understanding of the ways that types of language might vary from one another, and our appreciation of the ways that words pattern in language, have been immeasurably improved by corpus studies. Even more significant, perhaps, is the development of new theories of language that take corpus research as their starting point. The list of used literature 1. M. A. K. Halliday - Lexicology and Corpus Linguistics 2. Teubert and C ? erma? kova? 2004 3. Wallis, S. and Nelson G. 'Knowledge discovery i...

Linguistics Essay

...The foundations of linguistic theory : Selected writings of roy harris. London: Routledge. Kaufman, B. A. (1975). Will the real jean Piaget please stand up: An epistemological critique of three Piaget-based early childhood curricula Marchand, H. (2012). Review: Contributions of Piagetian and post-Piagetian theories to education. Educational Research Review, 7, 165-176. Morehead, D. M. , Johnson, M. , & Stanford Univ , CA ,Committee ,on Linguistics. (1972). Piaget's theory of intelligence app...

Text linguistics

...For example, the degree of modification of the basic syntactic patterns tends to vary according to individual users (e. g. , fragmentary individual style as a signal of aversion and distrust, long-windedness of a tedious politician, see Individuality, 3. 2. 2), momentary situation (urgency), medium, communicative goal (an emotional sermon by a preacher) and purpose/genre (essayistic and literary style where stereotypy is avoided). Generally speaking, unwelcome repetition can be prevented by mak...

Contrastive Linguistics

...Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Verb- und Adjektivsyntax. Bielefeld: Cornelsen-Velhaben & Klasing. Rohdenburg, Gunter (1992). Bemerkungen zu infiniten Konstruktionen im Englischen und Deutschen. In In Mair, Christian and Manfred Markus (eds. ), New departures in contrastive linguistics. Proceedings of the conference held at the Leopold-FranzensUniversity of Innsbruck, Austria, 10–12 May 1991, 187-207. Innsbruck. van der Auwera, Johan and Vladimir Plungian (1998). Modality’s semantic map...

Cognitive linguistics

...However, the claim that semantic structure can be equated with conceptual structure does not mean that the two are identical. Instead, cognitive semanticists claim that the meanings associated with linguistic units such as words, for example, form only a subset of possible concepts. After all, we have many more thoughts, ideas and feelings than we can conventionally encode in language. For example, as Langacker (1987) observes, we have a concept for the place on our faces below our nose and abov...

Structuralism in Linguistics

...21. Robins, R. H. (1967). A Short History of Linguistics. London: Longmans. 22. Saussure (de), F. (1959). Course in General Linguistics. London: Fontana. 23. Trubetzkoy, N. (1969). Principles of Phonology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 24. Twaddell, W. F. (1935). ‘On defining the phoneme’. Language Monograph No 16. 25. Weinreich, U. (1954). ‘Is a structural dialectology possible? ’ In: Word 10, pp. 388-400. 26. Wells, R. S. (1947). ‘Immediate constituents’...

Introduction to Linguistics

...Peter, R. (2000). English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge University Press. Ronald, W. (2006). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishing. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. Wikepedia: Sociolinguistics (n. d. ). Retrieved 30 October 2007 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sociolinguistics Wikepedia: Anthropological linguistics (n. d. ). Retrieved 30 October 2007 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Anthropological_linguistics Yu...

Spanglish & Linguistics

...UNGRAMMATICAL TRANSLATION. ‘FALSE COGNATES’ FOLLOW A SIMILAR FORMAT AS THEY BORROW WORDS FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH BUT PROVIDE A ROOT WORD THAT TRANSLATES INTO A DIFFERENT MEANING (E. G. “CARPETO” IS INDEED A SPANISH WORD, BUT THE SPEAKER WOULD BE INCORRECT IF THEY WERE USING IT TO DESCRIBE A “CAR PET”, AS “CARPETO” ACTUALLY MEANS “FOLDER” IN SPANISH. BECAUSE ROOT WORDS TEND TO BRANCH ACROSS MULTIPLE LANGUAGES, ‘FALSE COGNATES’ ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED DEVICES IN SPANGLI...

Schools of linguistics

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The History of Linguistics

...Advances will be made in explanation of how and why languages change. REFERENCES: Law, Vivien. The History of Linguistics in Europe from Plato to 1600. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Rees-Miller, Mark Aranoff & Janie. The Handbook of Linguistics. Blackwell, 2006. Ross, W. D. «Aristotle. » A short History of Science. London: Oxford, 1941. 116-117. Staal, Frits. «Euclid and Panini, Philosophy East and West. » (1979). W. Schegell, K. «The Handbook of Linguistics. » Rees...

Lexicology: Linguistics and Words

...Its figurative meaning is derived from implied information, from what we know about wolves - "a cruel greedy person", also the adjective wolfish means "greedy". Polysemy is very characteristic of the English vocabulary due to the monosyllabic character of English words and the predominance of root words. The greater the frequency of the word, the greater the number of meanings that constitute its semantic structure. A special formula known as "Zipf's law" has been worked out to express the corre...

Semantics: Linguistics and Meaning

...Nowadays, the various linguistic theories admit that no language description can be regarded as being complete without including facts of meaning in its analysis. A specific feature of modern research in linguistics is the ever growing interest in the problem of meaning. Definition and object of semantics In linguistic terminology, the word semantics is used to designate the science of word-meaning. However, the term has acquired a number of senses in contemporary science and, at the same time, ...

Linguistics and Cambridge International

...Knowledge of the literary or historical background, or of other works by the named author, is not expected. Dictionaries may not be used. 3. 4. 6 Paper 8 (Available for ADVANCED LEVEL on special application only) – Coursework (School-based Assessment) • • • • • • Candidates submit a folder of two essays on two texts; the texts must not be set for study elsewhere in the Syllabus, and must be whole works, originally written in English. The two texts must be taken from two different f...

Scope of applied linguistics

...For instance, if the text is about Genetic Engineering, a translator should read about the topic in both languages [the source language (SL) and the target language (TL)]. Some types of texts of translation are: financial translation and interpretation legal translation and interpretation literary translation medical translation and interpretation scientific translation and interpretation technical translation and interpretation Types of translation may be machine translation, machine-assisted t...

Linguistics and Verbal Context

...* Other features of stylistics include the use of dialogue, including regional accents and people’s dialects, descriptive language, the use of grammar, such as the active voice or passive voice, the distribution of sentence lengths, the use of particular language registers, etc. In addition, stylistics is a distinctive term that may be used to determine the connections between the form and effects within a particular variety of language. Therefore, stylistics looks at what is ‘going on’ wi...

Psycholinguistic: Linguistics and Language

...University of Georgia, Athens, 1991. (19) Farraj. , A. M. “Acquistion of Tense and Aspect in the English Based Inter-Language of Non-native Speakers”, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1995. (20) Noor, Hashim, “The Acquisition of temporal Conjunctions by Saudi Arabian Learners of English’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 3, N. 1 (p. 101-2A), 1993. (21) Maghrabi, A. “The Roles of Psycholinguistic Constraints and Typological Influence in the Acquisition of Prono...

Historical and Comparative Linguistics

...Addison Wesley, Longman. Toronto Wardhaugh, R. (1972). Introduction to Linguistics, McGraw-Hill Inc. New York Millward, C. M. (1996). A Biography of the English Language, 2nd ed. Harcourt Brace. Fort Worth. Campbell, L. (2004). Campbell, Lyle. 1999. Historical linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. London Richard, D. J. & Brian D. (2004). The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Blackwell Anttila, R. (1989) Historical and Comparative Linguistics, Benjamins Lass,R. (1997), H...

Stylistics: Linguistics and Expressive Means

...The list and specifications of connotational meanings vary with different linguistic schools and individual scholars and include such entries as pragmatic (directed at the perlocutionary effect of utterance), associative (connected, through individual psychological or linguistic associations, with related and nonrelated notions), ideological, or conceptual (revealing political, social, ideological preferences of the user), evaluative (stating the value of the indicated notion), emotive (revealin...

Linguistics and Chomsky S Theory

...He pointed out that a child could not possibly learn a new language through imitation alone simply because the language spoken around them is of a higher form. Adult’s speech is often broken up and even sometime ungrammatical. His theory applies to all languages as they all contain; nouns, verbs, consonants and vowels. Every language is extremely complex, often with subtle distinctions which even native speakers are unaware of. However, all children, regardless of their intellectual ability, b...

The Scope of Applied Linguistics

...In other words ‘Linguistic applied’ is just the application of linguistic models, while Applied Linguistics studies the whole picture, including the analysis of many others disciplines like psychology, neuroscience, sociology, law, medicine, etc. and also models and theories. As these disciplines were included, the universe of language-related problems grew. So Guy Cook (2003:20) enlightened linguists pointing out that there is a systematic way to classify the kind of problems we are concern...

Psycholinguistics: Linguistics and Language Production

...There is another theory states that stammering is caused by the absence of unambiguous lateralization of speech to the left hemisphere. There another disorder which is autism. The first signs of this disorder are apparent in infants, before speech has really developed. Autism is referred to as childhood schizophrenia. An autistic infant exhibits a disregard for human interaction and ignores eye and face contact. This condition creates a lack of social interaction. At the end, the reduction in ph...

Linguistics and their realationship to Teaching

...in curriculum theory. Educational Theory, 17:127-40. Lamendella, J.T. (1969). On the irrelevance of transformational grammar to second language pedagogy. Language Learning, 19:255-70. Levenson, E.A. (1979). Second language lexical acquisition: issues and problems. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 4:147-60. Oller, J.W. (1970). Transformational theory and pragmatics. Modern Language Journal, 54:504-507. Rivers, W.M. (1981). Teaching Foreign-Language Skills. Second edition. Chicago and London: Unive...

Importance and uses of contrastive linguistics

...There is a growing demand from both public and private sectors for professionals combining excellent language skills and sound linguistic theory and methodology. You study linguistic theory, description and methodology with a particular focus on corpus approaches and a strong multilingual component with high relevance for language professionals, especially in the field of foreign/second language learning, teaching (and testing), linguistics focusing on usage-based models and methods in language ...

Origin and Development of Applied Linguistics

...In an article titled “Linguistics and Applied Linguistics” posted in the website of University of Melbourne, Australia, the author emphasizes an important role of linguistics and applied linguistics in different areas of our life, specially in translation and interpretation area. The article provides clear reasons why linguistic and applied linguistics should be studied by those specializing in translation and interpretation. One of the given reasons is that the skills in need for solving pr...

How is linguistics a scientific study

...Thus, we can state that linguistic is a social science which can be subsumed under the empirical sciences. It deals with, among other things, how people behave and interact with each other in society by means of language. Linguistics is not as accurate as the natural or 'hard' sciences like physics, chemistry or biology, whose scientific status is established and irrevocable perhaps what makes linguistics less precise than the natural sciences is the fact that its subject matter (spoken or writ...

Origin and Development of Applied Linguistics

...Speaking of applied computational linguistic, people often mention machine translation, computer - assisted translation, and natural language processing as fruitful areas which have also come to the forefront in recent years. I am going to pick up machine translation as a typical example of applying linguistic knowledge. Machine translation is a form of translation where a computer program analyses the text in one language - the "source text" - and then attempts to produce another, equivalent te...

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