Library management system is an aspect or branch of information management system that keeps the records of both the library users, books in the library and the activities that is going on in the library, activities like borrowing books and returning books. Information management in general is the collection and management of information from one or more source and distribution of the information to one or more audience.
This sometimes involves those who a stake in or right to that information.
Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing, and delivery of information. In short information management entails organizing retrieving acquiring and maintaining information. It is closely related to and overlapping with the practice of data management.
A good library manager must be able to take of the following activities in the library; Keep records of books in the library, keep records of the library user, keep track of books borrowed by any library user, keep record of time a library user borrowed and return books and also after each day for decision making purpose, the library manager must be able to make analysis of books borrowed per day, analysis of the type of book people requested for per day and analysis of the author people read his/her book most per day.
The emergence of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as “web cats” or as online public access catalogs, OPACs), which allow users to search the library’s holdings from any location with internet access.
This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted. This proposed system is an offline access of library system or it doesn’t need to have an internet or web connection to run the program. It focuses on library transaction including borrowing of books, producing a library report in much accurate and easier way.
In this system, the librarian doesn’t have to use a card catalog; all she has to do is search the specific name of the book, title of book, and/or author in the system. The reasons why the researcher chose to study the electronic library system are, to find out the effectiveness of the electronic library system in the place where it is implemented, to answer the problems encountered in the existing library systems and to show additional features that can be integrated for faster retrieval of data.
An Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as library management system (LMS), is a resource planning system for a library, used to track and manage books in the library (Adebayo 2007). An ILS is usually comprised of a relational database, software to act on that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILS separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, which are then integrated into a unified interface.
Examples of modules include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials), cataloging (classifying and indexing materials), circulation (lending materials to patron’s and receiving them back), serials (tracking magazine and newspaper and newspaper holdings), and the OPAC (Public Interface for Users).
Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Most sizable First World libraries use an ILS. Smaller libraries, such as private homes or non-profit organizations (e.g. churches and synagogues), often forego the expense and maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system.
ILS was often known as library automation systems or automated system in the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Before the advent of computers, libraries usually used a card catalog to index its holdings. Computers were used to automate the card catalog, thus resorting the card catalog, keeping it up-to-date with respect to the collection, etc. Other tasks automated include checking out and checking in books, generating statistics and reports, acquisitions and subscriptions, indexing journal articles and linking to them, as well as tracking interlibrary loans.
Since the late 1980’s windows and multitasking have allowed business functions to be integrated. Instead of having to open up separate applications, library staff could now use a single application with multiple function modules. As the internet grew, ILS vendors offered more functionality related to the internet. Major ILS systems now offer web-based portals where library users can log in to view their account, renew their books, and be authenticated to use online databases.
Shibanda (2002) cited that integrated process of a computerized library system can keeps the track of all the books and periodicals and keeping the status updated. Apparently, there are “user IDs” and associated passwords to make an access in the system. This will keep all the information regarding the materials updated and monitored. The use of the computerized library system is a kind of technology that is popular in the developed countries. Perhaps, this is the right time for the developing countries to show any sign of development and progress even in the technological approach.
A computerized library system among the universities is just a simple approach to change the approach of the schools in their one of most busy areas. Through the use of the necessary infrastructure and implementation of the process, the computerized library system can be effective. Stephen Abram (2009) said that traditionally, the library management system or integrated library system (ILS) was responsible for running libraries efficiently and effectively. Over the last few years, the role of the ILS has been expanding from meeting library needs to delivering user experience.
Pandita (2004) in her paper “Collection Development in the Digital Era” examined the impact of electronic format on the collection development. She pointed out that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed. Mandal and Panda (2005) in their research paper titled “Collection Development in the Internet Age and the Need for a Consortium in the Engineering College Libraries in West Bengal: A Study” discussed the different dimensions of collection development.
The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17 engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined. Author suggested the staff training, provision of adequate staff and funds, appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. This study requires data for books and borrowers which will be used for registration, checking records on the database, view and print book status. Output of the electronic system will be the releasing of the books, Issuance of receipt and prints other information.
Figure 1: Schema of the Study
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the effectiveness of E – Library in the Municipal Library of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte during the calendar year 2012 – 2013. Specifically it intends to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the library system?
2. What are the problems encountered by the current library system? 3. What proposed system to be implemented?
4. What is level of functionality in terms of accuracy and speed?
The study was focused only to improve the library system that helps the librarian, readers, and other concerned people in terms of borrowing books, transaction, managing data, saving records, produce reports and the time and effort statements of assumption.
The electronic system manages and maintains records in a library of a certain borrower used to borrow books from a library. Transaction of books can be faster, and with the used of this system, there’s no need of manual recording by the librarian or any person who is in-charge to this system, which made the user of this system’s work lighter and convenience.
The study is not intended to change all the principle details and methods of borrowing books from the library but rather to improve it in much accurate and reliable form. Scope and Delimitation:
The scope of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the computerized library system in order to support the continuous learning in various pedagogical settings. To achieve this primary goal, the study should consider the three objectives.
First is to compare the existing library system from the traditional system. Second is to compare and contrast the various schools or universities that successfully managed the computerized approach as new library. Third is to identify the weaknesses and potential threats to make a recommendation on how to strengthen the computerized library system. The study was limited on wide area networking which needs greater requirements on both system hardware and software and exclusively implemented in the Municipal of Liloy, Zamboanga del Norte.
In order to have clearer idea about the study, the researcher defines the following terms: Code. This pertain to the process of writing the necessary code required to develop the prototype Library Management System. LMS. Library Managements System, Software helps the users to manage a library. Database. This term mains a large, comprehensive, and significant collection of data carefully organized and recorded so that information may be derived from it. Librarian. The primary user of the system. In charge of user’s creation, book item creation, check –The one who borrow books from the library. Borrower. The one who borrow books from the library.
Computerized. To enter, process, or store (data) in a computer or system of computers. Manually. Is done with the hands by human labor, not automatic. Library. A considerable collection of books kept for use, and not as merchandise. System. Is a group of elements that are integrate with the common purpose of achieving an object. Data. Is information in a form suitable for use with a computer. Report. Is a piece of information describing, or an account of certain events given or presented to sosmenone.
Program Testing. Stage in program development process which the programmer is task to run and test to determine the program errors. Debugging. A process of fixing the errors in a computer program. Internet. Group of network computer connected around the globe.
In this chapter, literature and studies are presented. These are related to library management system. These are taken from various references and all
of which have bearing with this study. Literature
By exploitation of the computers in access and management of information, universities can now administer the library’s operational efficiencies and organizational effectiveness. The more informative system in libraries can efficiently aid the processing of knowledge by supplying the useful information. The computerized library system in universities is expected to lessen the burden on both librarian and students in searching for the appropriate books and information.
Therefore, the new library system centers in the advantages in terms of accessing, retrieving, and sharing information most especially in a technologically oriented University environment (Shibanda, 2002). The integrated process of a computerized library system can keeps the track of all the books and periodicals and keeping the status updated. Apparently, there are “user IDs” and associated passwords to make an access in the system.
This will keep all the information regarding the materials updated and monitored. The use of the computerized library system is a kind of technology that is popular in the developed countries. Perhaps, this is the right time for the developing countries to show any sign of development and progress even in the technological approach.
A computerized library system among the universities is just a simple approach to change the approach of the schools in their one of most busy areas. Through the use of the necessary infrastructure and implementation of the process, the computerized library system can be effective. However, the country or the universities should answer the various challenges including the interactive connections (telephone and modem), the electricity problems, and the process of accessibility and privacy issues. In building the strengths among the universities, it is foremost important to address the issues that might affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the process.
The idea of the computerized library system is supported with the interactive environment of the country. This will serve as an advantage of the country to implement and negotiate the movement towards the computerized library systems (David, 1996). In the Philippines, there are many universities that openly participated in the computerized library systems which add to their value of promoting the learning. However, it is obvious that most of the universities that managed this new system are private or semi-private institutions.
The centralized reason that might contribute in this system is the large investments that the universities bound to provide. If all of the universities in the country successfully provide the library computerization, there is a possibility to place the learning in a most accessible and easiest way. Stephen Abram (2009) said that traditionally, the library management system or integrated library system (ILS) was responsible for running libraries efficiently and effectively. Over the last few years, the role of the ILS has been expanding from meeting library needs to delivering user experience.
Change has been focused on innovation in user experience. That is a challenge because libraries vary and their online users and physical users are different. For example, in a public library the physical users tend to be transaction-focused or those with less IT access or experience. In contrast, the online users of public libraries tend to be more highly educated and computer literate. In academic libraries, the online access comes from places such as student housing while those who come into the physical library tend to have more complex problems and need help with filtering rather than finding information.
Elisabeth Robson (2009) pointed out that, the catalogue has become a way to pull together disparate resources, including commercial resources and web links. Library management systems also allow circulation, including check in/check-out and enable libraries to purchase materials and track where they are. One of the biggest user requirements is usability. It has to be straightforward and has to do some of the searching for the user.
It’s amazing how important the look and feel of the interface is. Users want simple interfaces with simple search boxes that do a lot behind the scenes – much like they are used to with Google. Librarians also say that users want to replicate the functionality that they see elsewhere. For example, when they search the catalogue they want to be able to see reviews of the items they are interested in before they borrow them.
Oren Beit-Arie (2009) discussed that, many libraries are at a crossroads, reevaluating their businesses, missions and operations. The digital world will dominate more and more in the future, because of both mass digitization and born-digital content. Global economics also have an impact. Libraries want to do more with less where it matters. At the same time, the LMS is not just about the future and digital content but also about other types of content including physical. The move to digital doesn’t mean that libraries won’t have any physical resources to manage.
They need to work with tools that support a hybrid environment. Good linking is very important. Our Primo tool was the first link resolver for the research community. Link resolvers enable users to click on a link and get to the article. It doesn’t sound complicated but it is, because of the range of access methods available over the web. The article can be available in several places. Which is best for the users depends on what subscriptions have been negotiated by their institution. It is a complicated web of many-to-many connections.
Marshall Breeding (2011) pointed out that, in this time of tight budgets where libraries face difficult decisions regarding how to invest their technology resources, it’s helpful to have data regarding how libraries perceive the quality of their automation systems and the companies that support them. This report, based on survey responses from over two thousands libraries, aims to give some measure of how libraries perceive their current environment and probes at their inclinations for the future. Some libraries may refer to the results of this survey as they formulate technology strategies or even consider specific products.
I urge libraries not to base any decision solely on this report. While it reflects the responses of a large number of libraries using these products, I hope this survey serves more as an instrument to guide what questions that a library might bring up in their considerations and not to make premature conclusions based on subjective responses. Especially for libraries with more complex needs, it’s unrealistic to expect satisfaction scores at the very top of the rankings. Large and complex libraries exercise all aspects of an automation system and at any given time may have outstanding issues that would naturally result in survey responses short of the highest marks.
The survey results also aim to provide useful information to the companies involved in the library automation industry. While each company likely performs its own measures of client satisfaction, this survey may show perceptions in different ways. I hope that the rankings in each category and the published comments provide useful information to help each of the companies hone in on problem areas
and make any needed adjustments to their support procedures or product directions. This year marks the fourth time that I’ve carried out this survey. Each year I have received around 2,000 responses, and a few more libraries responded this year than in any of the previous iterations.
In very broad terms, the survey results are similar this year, but with some interesting new trends. Al-Ansari and Al-Enezi (2001) conducted a study to assess the current status of health sciences libraries in Kuwait. Study was titled 16 “Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait: A Survey of Their Resources, Facilities, and Services”. Library facilities, use of IT, information services and co-operation were the various facets explored. Survey revealed that majority of the library staff was non-professional. Libraries were offering only basic information services and a significant number of libraries were not automated.
Joshi (2001) “Veterinary College Libraries in Maharashtra.” Information was gathered about libraries through questionnaire. Book collection was found inadequate to meet information needs of the users and its growth was very slow. Journal subscription was not satisfactory, libraries were understaffed. Author recommended that Indian Council for Agricultural Research and Agricultural Universities should regularly organize orientation programmes for librarians. Similarly, Veer (2004) carried out a study titled “College of Education Libraries in Maharashtra: A Survey.”
It is an unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Gautam and Srivastava (2006) examined the prevailing position of documentation and information services of libraries of 30 agricultural universities in India under title “State-of-the-Art of Documentation and Information Services in SAU Libraries in India”. It had been found that all libraries were providing CAS and bibliographical services. Adebayo (2007) conducted a study to examine the implementation of library service standards in the colleges of education in Nigeria under name “Library Services Standards Implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria”. Data was collected through structured questionnaire.
Results of the study revealed that libraries were rendering basic services as recommended by National Commissions for Colleges of Education. These were not providing indexing and abstracting services. Partap (2007) conducted a survey of the libraries of 18 colleges of education in 3 districts of Punjab. He found that collection size of the libraries varied considerably and comparatively older colleges had large
collections. Majority of the libraries were being kept open for 6 to 7 hours a day.
He suggested for the introduction of user education programme and stressed on the need to increase the range and depth of collection and services. Sujatha and Mudhol (2009) in the paper titled “Evaluation of Electronic Information Services in the Fisheries College Libraries in South India: A Study” described the electronic information services in four fisheries college libraries. Authors also discussed the challenges the libraries and information centers were facing.
Thornton (2000) “Impact of Electronic Resources on Collection Development, the Roles of Librarians, and Library Consortia”. Study was conducted to find the impact of electronic resources and the 21 Internet on collection development and discuss the changing role of librarians, library co-operation and collection development. It had been concluded that consortia will become more important sources in electronic information world. Pandita (2004) in her paper “Collection Development in the Digital Era” examined the impact of electronic format on the collection development.
She pointed out that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed. Mandal and Panda (2005) in their research paper titled “Collection Development in the Internet Age and the Need for a Consortium in the Engineering College Libraries in West Bengal: A Study” discussed the different dimensions of collection development. The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17 engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined.
Author suggested the staff training, provision of adequate staff and funds, appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. Mulla and Chandrashekara (2006) “E-Resources and Services in Engineering College Libraries – A Case Study”. Study was conducted to examine the efforts made by the engineering college libraries in Karnataka to build electronic resources.
Results of the study revealed that collection and service infrastructure of the libraries in sampled regions were not up to the mark and libraries were struggling to build digital collection and in disseminating digital information due to lack of ICT infrastructure, IT trained manpower and paucity of finances, etc. 22 Adekanmbi and Boadi (2008) in study titled, “Problems of Developing Library Collections: A Study of Colleges of Education Libraries in Botswana” ascertained the availability and use of collection development policies in the college of education libraries, in Botswana.
In addition to using questionnaires, interviews were conducted to gather information from senior librarians, deputy principals of colleges and board of the affiliated institutions of the University of Botswana. Study brought to notice that majority of the libraries did not have collection development policies. Lack of constant training for librarians, inadequate staff, lack of support from administration and unavailability of collection development policies were some of the major problems found.
It was further found that majority of the libraries did not involve their users in formulation of policies and did not implement these for collection development. Study revealed the need to train librarians on collection development. Mary and Sankar (2008) “Collection Evaluation of PSN College of Engineering and Technology Library and PET Engineering College Library in Tirunelveli District”. Authors described the various techniques of evaluating the document collection in academic libraries and evaluated the collection development practices of two engineering colleges.
Sharma et al. (2008) evaluated the collection development in libraries of 38 engineering colleges of Orissa under title “Collection Management of Engineering College Libraries of Orissa: An Evaluative Study”. Information was collected from libraries using questionnaires. 23 Study concluded that growing dissatisfaction of the users arising from non-availability of needed documents and lack of provision of services could be boiled down to some extent, by rendering at least CAS or current contents or information about latest addition to users.
Mallaiah and Gowda (2009) in paper “Collection Development inMangalore University Library: A User Study” discussed the usefulnessof collection development in a university library and attempted to findwhether the UGC-INFONET E-journals were meeting the users information needs.
This chapter presents and describes the research design, research environment, research instrument and the research procedure. Research Design
The study utilized a description method reviewing a library database as basis to come up with the design on prototype Library Management System. Theresearcher decided to use Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 as the programming language in the entire system and Microsoft Access as the database wherein it will store the records of the borrower’s, books etc. Research Environment
This research is focused at Municipal library of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte. Liloy is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. It embraces 37 barangays with a total land area of 12,843 hectares with a total estimated population of 36,948 in 1995. It is mainly as agricultural community whose existing economy relies mostly on crop production such us corn, rice, coconuts, peanuts, and root crops. Liloy is a fishing ground of the northwestern towns of the province of Zamboanga. It is also known as “The Peanut Capital of ZaNorte”.
Liloy is one of the most promising of the twelve towns of the 3rd Congressional District of Zamboanga del Norte. It was once a barrio of Municipality of Sindangan. It was created and become a duly constituted municipal corporation by virtue of Executive Order No. 469 issued by President Elpidio Quirino on August 22, 1951 but was unorganized and inaugurated on December 16, of the same year. A huge portion of the territorial jurisdiction of Liloy had been taken away as a result of the creation and separation of Salug in 1959 and later in Tampilisan in 1978.
Now the total land area is only 12,843 hectares, seventy-eight percent of the land area is agricultural planted to coconuts, corn, rice, and root crop. Residential area is sixty-five (65) hectares. Commercial area at present is nine (9) hectares; Industrial area is found in Barangay Timan and Sta. Cruz with a total land area of (10); institutional land is fifty (50) hectares and the rest comprise the open space and road right of – way. What may be considered urban land according to the records in the assessor’s office are eight hundred sixty hectares and this increasing very fast with the approaching full operation of Liloy’s wharf. Map of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte
There where two sets of sources of data which will be used in this study: The borrower’s data which include the borrower’s ID, Borrowers name, Place and contact. And the book data which include the books no. ISBN, book title, author, category and the year it has been published. Research Procedure
The procedure of the study was, the researcher secured permission from the Municipal library, Interviewed library staff and gathered important data’s to be use in the study, then the next logical steps followed, The researcher also analyzed and designed the solution for the system, coded the solution into a programming language, tested the running system and prepared detailed specification of the study for the benefit of the primary user of the system.
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