The principal section of the book is Knowledge and Religious Experience, in which, Iqbal begins by giving us a concise depiction of the essential structure of the universe and the manner in which we are identified with it. Iqbal contends that the customary technique used to decipher religion which he portrays as “perusing the Qur’an in the light of Greek thought”is not the most ideal approach to comprehend religion appropriately. Despite the fact that, he perceives the way that in the area of religious information complete autonomy of thought is beyond the realm of imagination still he underscores on the utilization of logic.
As per him “the soul of the Qur’an was basically hostile to traditional”. Another technique portrayed by the creator as he calls it is the “spiritualist experience”. “Spiritualist experience with the end goal of information is as genuine as some other locale of human experience and can’t be disregarded only in light of the fact that it can’t be followed back to detect observation.
Nor is it conceivable to fix the profound estimation of the spiritualist state by indicating the natural conditions which seem to decide it”5. In this manner, the creator settles his contention by presuming that religious experience is a condition of feeling which can’t be clarified. It is only a sentiment of cognizance, the substance of which can’t be imparted.
From here, the essayist proceeds to discuss involvement. Experience, he says, has three dimensions to be specific issue, life and the dimension of brain and awareness.
While discussing matter, the creator attempts to infer that the things we see and hear, for instance, sound waves, hues, gravity and other physical marvel in nature are not real happenings but rather simple fantasies. Time, he says, is certainly not a genuine development. Occasions occurring later on are not new but rather are now situated in an obscure space. Consequently the fourth measurement is really a lot of occasions occurring in a positive request. By this, Iqbal states a misfortune in Einstein’s hypothesis of relativity. Iqbal considers life to be gotten ready for purposes that lay where it counts the astuteness of a living being. The cognizant experience is the dimension of understanding, in which we are in direct contact with the real world, since our impression of our own selves as cited in Iqbal’s words seems to be “‘inner, personal and significant”. Along these lines the component of direction and want forms the current situation with cognizance just as what’s to come. The end that we are brought to toward the finish of this address is that the Ultimate the truth is a “soundly coordinated imaginative life”
From here, the essayist proceeds to discuss involvement. Experience, he says, has three dimensions to be specific issue, life and the dimension of brain and awareness. While discussing matter, the creator attempts to infer that the things we see and hear, for instance, sound waves, hues, gravity and other physical marvel in nature are not real happenings but rather simple fantasies. Time, he says, is certainly not a genuine development. Occasions occurring later on are not new but rather are now situated in an obscure space. Consequently the fourth measurement is really a lot of occasions occurring in a positive request. By this, Iqbal states a misfortune in Einstein’s hypothesis of relativity. Iqbal considers life to be gotten ready for purposes that lay where it counts the astuteness of a living being. The cognizant experience is the dimension of understanding, in which we are in direct contact with the real world, since our impression of our own selves as cited in Iqbal’s words seems to be “‘inner, personal and significant”. Along these lines the component of direction and want forms the current situation with cognizance just as what’s to come. The end that we are brought to toward the finish of this address is that the Ultimate the truth is a “soundly coordinated imaginative life”
In the third address The Conception of God and the Meaning of Prayer, different parts of God have been clarified. These incorporate Creativeness, Knowledge, Eternity and Omnipotence. Forever is depicted by Iqbal utilizing the ash’arite hypothesis of Atomism in Islam and the tenet of mishaps. The information of a definitive inner self makes God mindful of the whole history as it comprises quantized occasions happening in a clear arrangement, and thus divine learning is procured in endless present. In this way divine information incorporates everything previously, present and what’s to come. Transcendence is the visually impaired power with no points of confinement. This power is practiced by God while grasping all decency. Iqbal then brings up the issue “How is it then conceivable to accommodate the integrity and Omnipotence of God with all the abhorrence in his creation?”8Here he is discussing man as the making of God. Iqbal then arrives at a resolution that man has this nature of progress, and is bound to defeat abhorrent. Coming to petition the creator portrays the importance of supplication. The importance of supplication, he says, is an “outflow of keeps an eye on internal longing for a reaction in the terrible quietness of the universe”9. Supplication is a route for that looking inner self to find its own value as a dynamic factor in this universe.
In the accompanying address, The Human Ego-His Freedom and Immortality, Iqbal begins by expressing that the Qur’an accentuates the distinction and uniqueness of man, and has an unequivocal perspective on his fate. At that point he continues to depict the human self image, which, as per him, is the solidarity of mental states which exist all in all, called brain. Each self image is extraordinary and is blemished as a solidarity of life. The body, he says, is associated with the spirit as the body is the mechanism of activity of the spirit and is in-separable from it. The motivation behind the spirit is delineated by the activity of the body. Since acts are associated with the self image by the method of motivating forces, along these lines, an individual must be deciphered and comprehended by his or her decisions and points. The interminability of the sense of self is later portrayed by the creator. Conscience did not exist since time everlasting, and has a starting like everything. As indicated by the Qur’an, there will be multi day of judgment and there will be an eternal life. Sense of self will at that point be responsible for its activities.
Toward the beginning of the fifth section, The Spirit of Muslim Culture, Iqbal discusses the mental contrast between the prophetic and spiritualist sort on cognizance. To pass judgment on the estimation of the Prophets’ religious experience is to look at the social world that has been made by them. From here Iqbal continues to discuss Muslim culture and the elucidation of Islam against Greek rationality. Most likely that the antiquated reasoning has delivered incredible frameworks of convictions, yet the need of current logic and science has turned out to be basic in present day times. On the off chance that an individual has faith in perfect disclosures and prophethood, the celestial disclosures, as indicated by adherents, should arrive at an end and the customary arrangement of deciphering Islam ought to be reevaluated.
The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islamseems to be the most critical address in the book. Truth be told the thought behind the entire book rotates around it. It is in this address where the creator asks the requirement for advancement in Islamic idea. The guideline of development in the structure of Islam as per the creator is ijtihad, which intends to frame an autonomous judgment on a lawful inquiry. The arrangement of lawful standards got from Qur’an has extraordinary limit of extension and advancement. As far back as the foundation of schools, the law of Islam was “decreased to a condition of immobility”10by the dismissal of ijtihad which had various reasons. Right off the bat there was dread that realism would demolish the establishment of Muslim society. Also the need of association felt by the early researchers lead to the avoidances of advancement in the shari’ah and removed the intensity of the person. It is contended by the creator that Qur’an is certifiably not a legitimate code; however its motivation is to stir in man the higher awareness of his connection with God and his manifestations. Correspondingly, the sunnah was intended for the general population around then and place, and in this manner, as indicated by the creator, is explicit to that individuals. The universe of Islam as indicated by Iqbal ought to continue to crafted by reproduction before them.
The seventh address, “Is Religion Possible?”provides us with the end posted by the creator. Iqbal has ordered religious life into three periods, to be specific confidence, thought and revelation. The primary time frame includes acknowledgment without realism. The second time frame, he says, is when acknowledgment is trailed by realism. In the third time frame, religious life scans for a sensible perspective on the world with God as a piece of that see. He goes on, and endeavors to clarify that religion and science including diverse strategies go for achieving a similar objective for example a definitive reality. He expresses that despite the fact that religion and science utilize diverse strategies however achieve a similar last point. The strategy for managing reality by methods for ideas, he says, is certifiably not a genuine method to manage it. Religion, as Iqbal portrays it, is the best way to manage reality since religion is progressively restless to achieve its last point.
In the perspective on the analyst, the wholepurpose of the book spins around its sixth part, The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam, where Iqbal has worried upon the utilization of ijtihad, which is a lost practice because of reasons which I have just referenced. He brings up that the Muslim idea and philosophy required reshaping with the goal for them to comprehend and rehearse their religion as characterized by the Qur’an. The style embraced by the creator is hypothetical, as he utilizes rationality with a complete blend of Islam and science to clarify his perspective. This blend clarifies all perspectives from various edges, subsequently is prevalent with a wide range of perusers. In the event that you trust that the Holy Prophet (sws) is the last messenger and that the celestial disclosures just were sent to him last time, the finish of the extraordinary at last pursues. With the finish of the otherworldly, the customary approaches to comprehend and decipher religion ought to be viewed as out of date, and better approaches for understanding religion ought to be considered. The utilization of science so as to take a few to get back some composure of reality gives the present peruser a progressively sufficient technique to fathom religion. Despite the fact that Iqbal weights on this point, regardless he utilizes Qur’anic stanzas and sufic words to clarify the truth of this universe and God, its maker. This strategy utilized by Iqbal furnishes the peruser with logic just as religious conservatism. To get an exhaustive diagram on religion, built up religious creeds ought to be given weight.
Despite the fact that the mix of science and rationality is by all accounts an extensive procedure, inordinate utilization of theory for motivations to censure speculations of material science is in my perspective a frail part of the work. For instance, Iqbal, in his second address difficulties the hypothesis of issue and Einstein’s hypothesis of relativity, as cited in his own words “The exact frame of mind which seemed to require logical realism has at long last finished in a rebel against matter”.13
In the event that we go further through the parts, we come to realize that Iqbal has utilized the Qur’an at a few spots to demonstrate different traits of God. Almost certainly Qur’an is a definitive wellspring of learning, and we should look for motivation in it yet it is troublesome for a non-Muslim peruser to acknowledge these contentions.