The aim of the study was to investigate in a natural setting whether images aid memory recall as did Bower in 1972. There are two conditions; condition 1 involving a grid of random words supported by images and condition 2 consisting only of random words. 20 participants were used for this research study, 10 were males and 10 were females aged from 16-25 gained through opportunity sampling. There were two groups/conditions of 10 (5 males, 5 females). The independent variables were materials for each condition (random words with images and words without images).
The dependent was the recall from each participant. The results measured using central tendency and measures of dispersion, moderately showed participants were able to recall more words in condition 1 (words with images) than of condition 2 (words without images). Example: Mean for Condition 1 = 14. 1 Mean for Condition 2 = 12. 6 The inferential statistics, which enable us to draw clear conclusions about the likelihood of the hypothesis being true, is evidence for accepting the null hypothesis.
The Mann-Whitney U-test: The observed value (35) is greater than the critical value (25).
The probability of these results occurring through chance would have been greater than 5%. In this case, the null hypothesis is accepted and this rejects the experimental hypothesis. From the results of the study it can be concluded that there is evidence to illustrate that people do remember more with the aid of visual representation and also evidence to illustrate people remember more without any visual representation.
Implications for further research is the effects of gender recall and discover if there is a significant effect for the sex of a participant on the types of gender associated images recalled and to compare the effects of visual and semantic codes in depth.
Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall Introduction “Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past. “1 Short-term memory is memory for instant events. STM lasts for a very short time disappear unless they are rehearsed.
STM store has limited duration and limited capacity. Long-term memory is memory for events that have happened in the past. LTM store has potentially unlimited duration and capacity. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (Multi-store model) there are three memory stores (sensory, short-term and long term memory). Sensory memory is the information collected by someone’s senses, though information receives no attention and remains in the SM store for a very brief period. People use memory aids to remember things such as numbers and lists.
Mnemonics is an example of memory aid; to help a person remember something, particularly lists using special words and short poems. In memory and mnemonics, chunking is a technique for making more efficient use of STM by recoding information. Miller, 1956 concluded in his article “The magic number seven plus or minus two” that chunking is a vital technique to reduce the load on memory and enables people to remember more things at one time. He noticed that the memory span of young adults was around seven elements, called ‘chunks’, regardless of whether the elements were digits, letters, words, or other units.
Previous research suggests that people remember more in aid of visual representation; Bahrick et al. , 1975 conducted a study into the nature of LTM. Bahrick et al. found that 90% within 15 years of graduation were accurate in identifying faces in a photo-recognition test, which supports the idea that images aid memory recall in LTM. In general STM appears to rely on acoustic code for storing information but some research has shown the visual codes are also used in STM. Brandimote et al.
, 1992 found participants used visual encoding in STM if they were given a visual task and prevented from verbal rehearsal in the retention interval before performing a visual recall task. Bower, 1972 conducted an imagery recall experiment. He asked participants in one condition to form mental images to link the random images on cards; the other condition was asked to just memorise the words. He found that participants who used imagery recalled 80% of the words compared with only 45% by the non-imagers.
This supports that people remember more in aid of visual representation. The aim of my study is to support Bower’s experiment findings and investigate in a natural setting whether images aid memory recall. Bower asked his participants to form a mental image of the image before recall, while the current investigation would not involve forming a mental image but participants will be shown a grid of words supported by images and a grid consisting of just words to memorise before recall. Aims & Hypotheses The study aims to investigate whether images aid memory recall.
The hypothesis is (as did Bower, 1972) that participants in condition 1 (involving grid of random words supported by images) would perform better than those in condition 2 (only consisting of random words). My hypothesis is one-tailed; people remember more in aid of visual representation. The null hypothesis is there will be no difference in condition 1 (involving grid of random words supported by images) and condition 2 (only consisting of random words); this difference is due to chance factors alone. The level of significance for this study is 5% (0.
05) as this is neither to harsh nor too lenient. Method * Design The investigation was a laboratory experiment, in which the independent variable was manipulated to observe effect on the dependent variable under controlled conditions. The investigation used this research method to minimise confounding variables, draw causal conclusions and in addition, investigation/study can be replicated without difficulty. In this investigation the independent groups design was used; two groups of participants used to investigate two conditions.
This particular design was used to avoid order effects and participants guessing the purpose of the experiment. The investigation used an opportunity sample (people who are easily available) whereas a random sample would need to be drawn from a large population and a volunteer sample can be volunteer bias. The independent variables (manipulated by the experimenter) were the materials for each condition (random words with images and words without images). The dependent variable (what is being measured) was the recall from each participant.
The confounding variables, variables apart from the independent variables that do affect the dependent variables were noise, surroundings, age, participant reactivity, use of words and images. Though, noise and surroundings may be considered as an extraneous variable. Confidentially is a legal right under the Data Protection Act; this investigation did not record the names of participants; instead used numbers though gender of participants was noted. Participants were given informed consent, allowing participants the right to withdraw if they decide during the experiment that they no longer wish to participate.
Participants were deceived about the nature of the study, though all participants were debriefed after the experiment, so such deceptions may be regarded as acceptable and to limit all ethical considerations. Participation in the investigation may have caused some participants emotional/mental distress (use of words/time limit), though during the debrief participants are given the opportunity to discuss their feelings. * Participants 20 participants were used for conducting this research study, 10 were males and 10 were females aged from 16-25 gained through opportunity sampling.
There were two groups/conditions of 10 (5 males, 5 females). * Apparatus/Materials All apparatus/materials used were two sheets of paper with a grid of 20 random words and one of the sheets; words were supported by an image. The standardised instructions, informed consent letter, debrief, answer sheet (identical to word sheet, with grid but no words/images and also to indicate age and gender) and a stopwatch to measure 1 minute for participants to memorize words. Apparatus/materials found in the appendices (1-7). * Standardised Procedure 1.
20 participants were used for conducting this research study, 10 were males and 10 were females aged from 16-25 gained through opportunity sampling. There were two groups/conditions of 10 (5 males, 5 females). 2. The experiment took place in a natural setting (for students), a school science laboratory. 3. A grid (4×5) with 20 random words and another grid with the same 20 random words but supported by images. 4. Those in condition 1 were given the grid in which words were supported by images and condition 2, given grid consisting of only words. 5.
Researcher/experimenter had to limit speech as much as possible therefore participants were given standardised instructions, after reading and signing the statement of informed consent, which allowed participants the right to withdraw during the experiment. 6. Participants were given 1-minute to memorise as many of the 20 words. 7. After the 1-minute, grid of 20 words was removed. 8. Participants were presented a blank grid (same grid as the 20 words grid but blank spaces) on which they had to recall as many words, with no time limit. 9. After recalling as many words, participants had to indicate gender and age.
10. Participants were also debriefed after the experiment informing them of the nature/purpose of the experiment. * Controls Controlled variables were the words used, room and time for participants to memorize the words. The investigation used standardised procedures a form of experimental control to ensure that confounding variables are eliminated. Set of procedures that are the same for all participants; which can enable replication. Standardised instructions (control of investigator effects) were used; a set of instructions that are the same for all participants to avoid investigator effects.
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