Import Substitution vs Export Promotion

Jason Yarusi

November 27, 2006

Researcher – Devereaux & A ; Deloitte

Brief: 191030

Discuss the comparative virtues of Import Substitution versus Export Promotion ( EP ) . Are they complementary or contradictory trade policies?

Throughout this paper the focal point will be to turn out that while the virtues of export publicity ( EP ) outweigh those of import permutation ( IS ) , the two patterns are in fact linked and counter-act the ability for an economic system to turn or wither. Obviously put ( IS ) is the replacing of goods and services purchased outside a part with goods and services produced within the part, therefore making “ growing from within.

” ( EP ) , on the other manus, is the development and attractive force of industries that serve external clients or stagger in external money, double uping the growing of the local economic system.

( EP ) is by and large adapted by states that seek to turn through trade and is widely popular in Asiatic economic systems such as Taiwan and South Korea. One of the benefits seen within these economic systems is that the exposure of domestic industries to higher criterions of the world’s industries creates a higher degree of efficiency within the domestic industries by making higher productiveness while take downing unit costs.

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If certain companies can non run into such standards they are finally eliminated. Such a pattern can be of informant in Taiwan, one of the world’s most successful economic systems. ( Keesing 1993 ) The successes of ( EP ) strategies lies to a great extent on universe trade conditions. ( EP ) merely utilizes those industries that have the ability to develop and vie with foreign challengers.

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Normally, less-developed states are awkward at bring forthing such industries and are hence rendered inadequate to come on with such a scheme. Merits of an ( EP ) scheme are that it may excite assorted attempts taking to technological alteration and development, through encouraging and implementing the acquisition of enhanced technological capablenesss. This has been a immense factor in the turning success of East-Asian economic systems. ( Westphal 1985 )

On the other manus, ( IS ) relies on a series of phases to go a successful economic scheme. First labour-intensive domestic industries that are presently met by imports need to be identified. Second, import those goods needed to bring forth labour-intensive low capital goods. Third, usage duties and quotas to protect these infant industries while they grow and as the domestic end product Begins to replace the imports. Last, get down exporting these goods or later bring forthing capital goods. ( Bruton 1989 ) Opposite industries under the ( EP ) scheme, ( IS ) ’s protection of domestic baby industries consequences in inefficiency, low productiveness and high unit cost, taking to high consumer costs and a decrease of consumer excess.

Developing states benefit most from the usage of an ( IS ) scheme, as these states are able to let their less-developed industries to make a degree where they can vie with foreign industries all over the universe. ( Edwards 1993 ) This is good to under-developed states as they are able to bring forth ingestion goods that do non necessitate a progressed engineering. However, by using this scheme the country’s economic system becomes closed to the remainder of the universe. This leads to the country’s involvement rate, rising prices and exchange rate to be internally determined. This can make legion jobs as the absence of competition with foreign industries is countered by a authorities attempt to put theses policies and to raise protection degrees such as duties and quotas, which finally hurts the economic system over clip. ( Bruton 1998 ) However, most authoritiess when ab initio accommodating the ( IS ) scheme assume the protection to be impermanent until the protected industry is able to come on and finally compete with the foreign industries. What occurs happens to be rather the opposite causation jobs in returns to scale, such as higher production costs. Besides to finally go competitory with foreign industries the monetary value degree must be competitory, nevertheless a closed economic system sets no case in point on such a degree.

With all the negative factors that come to bear under an ( IS ) scheme, as stated before, this scheme is one of the most successful for less-developed states to overhaul their local economic system and reach the degree of developed states. Besides this scheme is conspicuously applied to consumption goods as those who produce this goods will non necessitate a progressed engineering that is already missing within less-developed states. The most deluxe consequence of this scheme is the lessening in the foreign currency outgos and therefore the lessening in the trade shortage. ( Grabowski 1994 ) The opposite consequence can be that the state develops and begins to utilize intermediate goods ( which are non produced internally and necessitate to be imported ) in order to bring forth high engineering goods, which renders them dependent to foreign states and raises the degree of the trade shortage. An illustration of this conversion of production map can be seen in a passage from the production of agribusiness to industrialisation. ( Persky 1993 )

Therefore, the use of a ( EP ) scheme has more virtue and a higher success factor over an ( IS ) scheme. The fact remains that many states are non able to use a ( EP ) scheme due to their phase in development. This inability links these two schemes as many states who ab initio adapt an ( IS ) scheme crossing over to an ( EP ) scheme in due clip. States who have made this passage from ( IS ) to ( EP ) have developed faster than similar states that have stayed within the original ( IS ) scheme. Though it may look executable to do the passage for an import to export based scheme the crossing over is non ever every bit simple as declared. Problems stated throughout this piece with utilizing the ( IS ) scheme such as inefficient productiveness, the protective quotas and an unequal exchange rate must be resurrected. Besides these countries that need to be corrected, structural alterations besides need to be tended to including choosing the necessary engineering and to properly allocate resources. Last, to go a state that utilizes an outward oriented scheme, authorities intercession must hold and let for the universe markets to find the monetary value degree, production degree and exchange rate, but authorities must still help the policy by advancing exports by opening mercantile establishments that push goods and services for trade. ( Adelman et al 2000 ) In decision, each trade policy has peculiar virtues in conformity with the development degree of the state. Less developed states resonate better with ( IS ) ab initio but the more developed a state becomes the more evident ( EP ) is to success and endurance throughout the universe markets.


Adelman Irma and Erinc Yeldan 2000. Is this the terminal of economic

development? Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 11: 95-109

Bruton H. 1989. Import Substitution. Handbook of Development

Economicss II: 1601-1644

Edwards S. 1993. Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in

Developing Countries. Journal of Economic Literature XXXI: 1358-1393

Grabowski, Richard. 1994. “Import Substitution, Export Promotion, and the State in Economic Development.” Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 28, p. 535-54.

Keesing, Donald B. ( 1993 ) “The four successful exclusions: official export publicity and support for export selling in Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan” , UNDPWorld Bank, Trade Expansion Program, Occasional Paper

Persky, J. , Ranney, D. , and Wiewel, W. 1993. “Import permutation and local economic development.” Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 7, p. 18-29

Westphal, L.E. , L. Kim, and C.J. Dahlman. ( 1985 ) Reflections on the Republic of Korea ‘s Acquisition of Technological Capability. In N. Rosenberg and C. Frischtak, eds. , International Technology Transfer: Concepts, Measures, and Comparisons. New York: Praeger Publishers

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Import Substitution vs Export Promotion. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

Import Substitution vs Export Promotion

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