The Human Computer Interaction(HCI) is the field of study of mutual communication between the user and the computer. This is the field of interaction is equipped by using the user interface which includes the software as well as the hardware too. All the software which are being made are enabled with user interface design and their implementation. Today, Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows 98 etc. are the operating systems which are enabled with graphical user interface. This is also the human computer interaction.
The World Wide Web is also the example of human computer interaction. The field of the human computer interaction is well developed today with the advent of new technologies in software and hardware both. With the development in this the field the new terms like menu, buttons, icons etc are introduced which recite the uses and advantages of human computer interaction. (Brad A. Myers March, 1998 pp. 44-54 ) With the development in application of mobiles the human computer interaction’s are also increased.
The new interface design like touch-screen designing of computers and mobiles also has given a new direction to HCI. The HCI in future has better opportunities with the developing software and hardware. 2) Methodologies and processes for designing interfaces: the HCI design methodologies are developed from early methods like treated users’ cognitive processes to the new ones like web designing. The methods for designing the HCI always looks for interaction between the user, computer that is the machine and the designers.
User centered design is also the method in which every aspects like requirements, design etc.
are included in which the attention is being paid on cognitive factors. in this design processes the users use through the hyperlink with a very high speed. These models as the name denotes are based on the models which are based on human expectations. The model can be integrated by programming and then can be implemented and then the feedbacks can be undertaken for modifications.
(HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION p. 1) Paper prototyping is also a method for designing HCI by developing software. It is used for examining and scheming user interface. In this method the drawings of the interfaces are created for design. Its is a useful method as the sketching is faster than the programming. This method can be useful as the persons who do not the programming can also do this. Web design is also a method of designing user interface like web pages, websites etc.
using HTML, JAVA as the software toolkits for development of web pages. The web design is used to made websites as graphical user interface(GUI). The web design also implemented to meet the requirement of the website developer as well as the end-user. The web design is based on languages like JAVA, HTML for safety purposes to eliminate the problem like hacking etc. Cognitive method of HCI designing is a earlier method but still its very constructive.
It is based on analysis of two aspects cognitive exchanges with computers like learning, reading and other aspect is cognitive stuffing, composition etc. In this process the user analysis is done firstly like requirements, tasks etc. This analysis contains the features like memory, perception, requirements etc. The next step is designing and analytical test. This contain the features like language and memory. The last phase is system testing to test the authentication of the system.
(Douglas J. Gillan & Nancy J. Cooke p. 1) 3) Methods for implementing interfaces: There are many methods of implementing the interfaces like software, research methods, efficient algorithms etc. There are many software tools like windowing systems, toolkits, interface builders etc. These software includes the software like JAVA, Macintosh Toolbox, Visual Basic etc. These software are very beneficial as they have application in HCI designing as well as in other fields also.
The software programming is easy to handle as any person can gain knowledge of it. The methods of implementing interfaces using the software is also beneficial as the cost is reduced in designing and the modifications can be made very easily. The software used has the advantage that if the new version of software comes in light and the user want the interface based on this new version. Then the interface can be programmed in the new software and interface can be modified.
The libraries can also be used to develop the software. The libraries are used to store the data, execute the programs. Then the programs are implemented which are stored in these libraries. These libraries can be connected to share the heavy load of data. With the advancement of these libraries the data is now stored in organized and can be shared in any part of the world. The algorithms are also used for HCI designing as these algorithms are created for systematic workflow.
For detailed representation of the problem which has to be solved has to be studied carefully. This approach is developed by efficient use of the algorithms. 4) Techniques for evaluating and comparing interfaces: There are many techniques for evaluating the interfaces design and utilization. There are many criteria for evaluating like EC directives. There are many issues which have to be undertaken for evaluation of interfaces like controllability, data integrity etc.
These factors are mainly used for HCI interfaces evaluation as these are basic factors for designing and comparison of interfaces. The HCI interfaces which are being developed must be user friendly. The techniques which are being used today are EVIDAS II, MUSiC, KABA etc. These are the latest techniques which are used for comparing the interfaces. These techniques are categorized further as user-oriented like MUSiC and product-oriented like EVADIS II(Chris Stary*, Thomas Riesenecker-Caba, J &-g Flecker, pp1-2).
These techniques undertake various fields like user interface, organization of work, software features etc. These techniques are designed to evaluate the various factors like appropriateness, management of data, failure of interface chances etc. These techniques has developed the chances of improvement in software quality, user-friendly quality, success rate, cost effectiveness etc. The major task is transparency of software for future modification. These HCI interfaces are applicable to group work, this factor is also tested by these techniques.
5) Developing new interfaces and interaction techniques: The new interfaces which are being designed for the future must includes many features like management and filtering of data, input devices and sensors, learn ability, user satisfaction etc. The Augmented Reality(AR) design is a latest one. This design is oriented from the Virtual Reality(VR) design. These design are implemented to reduce the cognitive overhead. ( Andreas D? nser, Raphael Grasset, Hartmut Seichter, Mark Billinghurst pp1-5)
There are many principles which are being undertaken like affordance, user satisfaction, low physical effort, learn ability, flexibility etc. There might be a switching from 2D to 3D visualization. The HCI may be designed by touch-screen application. The models which are being designed must correlate according to the needs, task, goals of the user. The 2D screen desktop may be given a new look by 3D view. The HCI may be developed such that they might be connected to mobile and when a e-mail, message etc.
come then the user interface attach directly connect with the processor and the communication system and will inform the user directly. One technique may be used by using sensors. When the user wants to switch on the computer or want to give any instruction. Then the sensor which are employed just start their working and obey the order of user. The HCI must respond to the user’s instruction quickly. The problem of slow response must be eliminated in order to make new interface more efficient.
The error must be eliminated or must be decreased to a zero level. The interface must have the tracking stability. The user-centered design must be improved to AR designs. The user intervention must be taken into account. 6) Developing descriptive and predictive models and theories of interaction: The models which are to be developed must be based on the many key factors like virtual and augmented reality, tangible user interface, affective computing, sensing interface eye moved based interface , perceptual interface etc.
The models are used to design and evaluate the interface technique The graphical user interfaces(GUI) are used today mainly. These interfaces will be modeled according to the needs of the user. The new models will used the basic qualities of the WIMP interface as well as they will work on new innovative techniques like using sensors, 3D environment. The HCI environment must be created such that the communication process must be strong.
The metaphoric systems are related to the descriptive models and the those which are related to mathematical systems, are towards the predictive models. The predictive models analyze the interface technique with any time-consumption. The descriptive model are different than the predictive models but are used as well like the predictive model. These models does not give the quantitative measure but just provide a scenario to think about the situation of the problem or to describe the problem. These models are used for keyboard interfacing, mouse interfacing etc.
( I. Scott MacKenzie, pp. 27-54 ) The models which are based on these models are also modified according to the new theories presented like the use of new methods like digital libraries. 7) Conclusion: The human computer interaction is very beneficial today as well as few decades ago when WIMP interfaces were in use. With the advent of new technologies and theories, the new HCI environments has been created and the development in the field of the HCI is going on like 2D to 3D environment on desktop.
These all development are due development of new software and techniques which are being used. The latest research strategies like Ethnography is also beneficial for the HCI development. The web application are being developed with the use of new methods. Thus the HCI environment has been developed a lot.
1) Human Computer Interaction, Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. (Online), 4th April, 2007.