One of the major issues faced in a solid waste management is E waste recycling and the accumulation of E waste, with developmental activities of various cities e waste also increases. The major portion of the materials that are harmful in nature and recyclable parts are retained, parts that are non-reusable parts are being landfilled that causes illness to the ground. The major part of the project focuses on the surface coat of the flexible pavement in the form of the pre-fabricated form of a bituminous mat that replaces the non-reusable parts of E waste used as coarse aggregate for the surface coat and the land filled plastic to create a polymer modified bitumen to increase the rheological properties of the bitumen to have the enhanced properties of tack coat.
Strength of the surface coat when compared to the conventional laying surface coat could be increased comparatively. By utilization of this product time consumption, cost of labour for laying the surface coat could be reduced and patch work for the existing pavement could be used with increased properties of the bitumen at a cost effective approach to the existing conventional methods.
Finally the specification for the vehicle to pave the bituminous mat over the base course to be laid is designed.
Recent advancement projects relating to our sophisticated needs increases the demand for the advanced electronic projects day by day. This kind of situation increases the demand for various new electronic products which creates enormous wastes from the existing older parts of electronic items and also the segregation of electronic waste increase and those parts of the elements containing the recyclable metals and other valuable parts are recovered.
The remaining parts of waste include the plastic coverings, PCB boards along with the resistors, capacitors etc. Apart from the various parts of the electronic products the waste materials are being dumped as non-engineered dump fillings that increase the land pollution due these filling.
The major issues that are faced due to these issues are least taken into account and thus the recyclers available for the e waste are few in numbers where they are mainly engaged by the major electronic companies that tend to expel more e waste. The wastes that are from small commodities and from homes are not considered as major, but those may create a potential issue that degrade the environment.
Surface coat of the flexible pavement are the top most layer that are in direct contact with the traffic load and vehicular movements that impart friction to the moving vehicles based on the gradation of the mixes. They are of thickness ranging from 25mm to 50mm. The major concept of the project lies in casting the surface coat as a prefabricated form called as a mat, that are to be casted in the off-site and a new machine that are able pave such casted mat on to the field. This helps in laying the casted surface mat on to the field directly.
The waste plastic that are being employed as the casing for the electronic are being shredded to form as a polymer modified bitumen for the tack coat and also as a coating for the mat that could be poured over the mat while placing of the mat on the tack coat. E waste are being shredded and are being used as a replacement for the aggregate for the in the surface coat. Thus a part of the e waste those are to be lands filled are replaced as an effective material to create as a useful product. Thus the outcome of these products will contain the recycled parts of the e waste.
The major part of the work starts with the tack coat that is able to stick the mat firmly along with the base courses of the flexible pavement that are to be casted along with plastic that are polymer modified bitumen. The optimum percentage is to be employed in the bitumen which meets the specification of the tack coat. The surface coat that is to be used in the mat will be a porous based material those pores are to be filled with the polymer modified bitumen emulsion poured above the mat.
The major materials used for the surface coat are coarse aggregate, bitumen, cement and the materials are being tested for the quality of the materials are to be compared with the standards of IRC to obtain the proper results. Coarse aggregate of size 12mm are adopted.
Thus the bitumen test result compared to the IS standards and thus the grading based on viscosity is expected to be VG40 . The E wastes are being separated from the plastic coverings and the PC boards and hence the resistors are being removed manually and then they are shredded to approximate size of the aggregate of adopted. Cement of grade 53 is adopted as filler material.
The main aim of the mat to be casted as an porous bituminous is to make sure that the tack coat and the coating to be poured is to fill the voids that are created artificially on the mat to have proper bond between the pre casted mat along with the base course and surface coating. The aggregate that are used is of the specifications from the IRC , the shredded e waste i.e. the PCB (Printed Circuit Boards) from various source which are of nearly made up of FR4 material that are casted from glass fibre reinforced with epoxy resins that are suitable materials that could easily bondable along with the bitumen that ensures any kind of leachate from the PCB that is replaced with the aggregate. The optimum percentage and the stability are to be tested with the marshal stability test to ensure the proper stability of the surface coat with conventional mix and the mix with the e waste materials and hence the results are tabulated. Approximately 1200gm of coarse aggregate and 3% of cement as filler material and summation of the mineral aggregates are considered for the percentage with the binder content.
The optimum binder content is found to have maximum stability and flow values, with 6.5% of total amount of weight by coarse aggregate and filler materials. Based on the type of the place to be the surface coat to be applied the design of the coat will vary and thus the size of the shredded E waste will vary along the type of the mix that will be proposed. Addition of the e waste might increase the properties that are to perform the surface coat with in the economical consideration will make the mix hard and hence the mix is being modified with the varying percentages of replacing coarse aggregate and plastic in the binder content are done and the results are tabulated.
Thus the values are plotted on the graph scale and hence the values are found to be increases and at the point of optimum binder content it has greater value and further getting reduced for stability and goes on increasing for the flow values with binder content.
Since the value is satisfying with the standards but the stability value adopted is found to be lesser than the conventional mix it is better to choose the conventional mix with high stability. The mat that is prefabricated will increase the cost and the time required for manual laying of the conventional method. This could also be used with some modification for the surface dressings of the existing road pavements and hence the conventional mix is adopted for the mat with a trial size of (0.35m X 0.30m X 0.012m)
The vehicle specification will directly depend on the length and the thickness of the mat, capacity of the roller, storage of the bitumen emulsion etc. The optimum length between the placing of the mat and the pouring of the secant to fill the voids on the mat is to be specified as the major the recommendations for the vehicle.
The major consideration of product is to utilize e waste to reduce the land filing and also to convert it as an equivalent non disruption material for the environment and the prefabricated part will definitely be utilized as an economical product compared with the conventional method of laying the surface coat. But unfortunately the mix with e waste has not yielded the required result and hence the conventional mix is adopted for the mat with a trial size of (0.35m X 0.30m X 0.012m) is adopted. After the testing and specification of the emulsion obtained for the tack coat could be adopted for the real practice since it is a prefabricated attempt, it is better to use rapid setting emulsion as tack coat.
The mat has to be filled along with the emulsion on the field and so there will be an effective bonding between the base and surface coat. The failure due to heavy vehicular movement could be reduced and longitudinal failures, rutting, pot holes may be reduced using the waste that are dumped unnecessarily. The mat could also be used in the patching work of the existing road such that the cured bitumen will perform well when compared to the existing conventional method of patch work.
The product as an outcome of this project will have a specification and advantages could be achieved as follows:
Dumping of e waste could be reduced and could be recycled in to a useful product if the other type of bitumen adopted from a different source produces a proper yield.
Cost of construction for the surface coat, labour required for laying is reduced and the surface coat is casted without wastage of any resources.
Pot holes, rutting, longitudinal failures and other kind of cracks are repaired easily.
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