Environmental Influences on Personality: Childhood Experiences

PSY 216 Literature Review One

What is the title of the article? Provide a citation for the article in APA format.

Dargis, M., Newman, J., & Koenigs, M. (2016). Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(3), 221–228. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1037/per0000147

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

The purpose of this article is to determine whether physical, sexual, and emotional abuse could be correlated to conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy and how to may have an impact on one’s personality developmental state.

What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article?

The hypothesis of this study and article predicted that childhood physical abuse directly relates to conduct, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy; and that emotional and sexual abuse has direct association with conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and Factor 2 of psychopathy, however not Factor 1 in this case; that emotional neglect will have a specific relationship with Factor 1 of psychopathy.

Get quality help now
Dr. Karlyna PhD
Verified writer

Proficient in: Childhood Experiences

4.7 (235)

“ Amazing writer! I am really satisfied with her work. An excellent price as well. ”

+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on personality? How are these factors assessed or measured in the article?

The variables in this article that are examined that may have an influence on personality development are childhood abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), psychopathy. As well as an inside look at adulthood antisocial personality disorder, childhood conduct disorder, intelligence, and socioeconomic status.

If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance.

Get to Know The Price Estimate For Your Paper
Topic
Number of pages
Email Invalid email

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

You won’t be charged yet!

How does the view of personality in this article compare with historical views of personality?

In the past there have been countless studies on the relationship between these variables. In 1996, Barbara Weiler and Cathy Widom proposed that “the risk of developing psychopathic personality traits, which subsequently results in an increased risk for the individual to become involved in violent behavior, increases when abuse and/or neglect are suffered during childhood.”

In a 2010 study, performed by Jungmeen Kim and Dante Cicchetti, the relations between child abuse and/or neglect, emotion regulation, peer acceptance and rejection, and psychopathy were investigated. They concluded that when compared with children who had not suffered abuse or neglect, the abused and/or neglected children exhibited emotion regulation.

What type of research design is used in the study? What instruments or measures did the researchers use to collect data?

The type of research design used in this study was a correlation design with a cross-sectional with retrospective, self-report data. The authors used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to assess childhood abuse experiences; Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) to assess psychopathy; adulthood antisocial personality disorder and childhood conduct disorder were assed using the criteria set forth by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised or the Shipley Institute of Living Scale were used to assess the participants’ IQ; the authors also used Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Socioeconomic Status to assess the participants’ parent’s education level for socioeconomic status.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or why not? In relation to the article, how have ethical considerations in personality psychology research changed over the years?

After examining the article, I have concluded that the research was conducted in an ethical manner. All participants were informed that their participation was voluntary and would have no impact on their incarceration status; all clinical assessments were conducted by trained undergraduates and supervised by professional staff.

PSY 216 Literature Review Two

What is the title of the article? Provide a citation for the article in APA format.

Lurie, L. A., Levy, S., Rosenthal, F. M., & Lurie, O. B. (1943). Environmental influences: The relative importance of specific exogenous factors in producing behavior and personality disorders in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 13(1), 150–161. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1943.tb05989.x

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

The purpose of this article is to deliberate the relationship of environmental influences to all forms of behavioral problems. Along with the relative importance of specific types of exogenous factors in nature and development of the trends with antisocial and asocial behaviors.

What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article?

In this study the authors hypothesize that there is indeed a relationship between environmental influences and delinquent behavior amongst children.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on personality? How are these factors assessed or measured in the article?

The variables that are addressed in the study are the influence on personality within general behavior problems (immoral, antisocial, and abnormal), school problems (behavioral and academic), intelligence, home life, participants’ neighborhoods, and physical disorders. There is no evidence present on how the authors measured or assessed these factors stated.

If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance. How does the view of personality in this article compare with historical views of personality?

The relationship between the mentioned variables had been studied several times prior to this current article. Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck conducted a study in 1934, analyzing the mental conditions of 816 households/ families. In this research, they had found that 86% of the families contained one or more members who were psychiatrically classified as mentally diseased, defective or with significant peculiarities of personality. Later, their findings were confirmed by Douglas Thom and Florence Johnston, who performed another study on the subject at hand. Thom and Johnston found that there were very limited occurrences of familial disease in their group of well-adjusted children.

In 1940, George Henry and Alfred Gross conducted a study in which they observed home environments of 200 juvenile delinquents who were incarcerated. Henry and Gross determined that precisely 1%, came from normal homes. In their study, a normal home is defined as “a home in which both the social and medical conditions are normal.”

What type of research design is used in the study? What instruments or measures did the researchers use to collect data?

The type of research design used in this study was a correlation and observation design. The authors are not specific on what methods they used to collect data for this particular study. The article does however state that it is “based on the results of a study of 400 problem children who were under observation at the Child Guidance Home.”

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or why not? In relation to the article, how have ethical considerations in personality psychology research changed over the years?

After reviewing the research study, I have concluded that this research was not conducted in an ethical manner. The authors have based their study only on white children, and not minorities as well. However, this article was written in 1943, and this may not have been an ethical concern or considered at the time of it being studied.

PSY 216 Literature Review Three

What is the title of the article? Provide a citation for the article in APA format.

[bookmark: _Hlk504924679]Shaver, P., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Attachment theory and research:

Resurrection of the psychodynamic approach to personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 39(1), 22-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2004.09.002

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

The purpose of the above-mentioned article was to validate the attachment theory with a contemporary psychodynamic approach. To display how this theory has revived psychodynamic psychology back into existence and review empirical evidence from our laboratories that supports many of the psychodynamic hypotheses advanced by Bowlby (Shaver & Mikulincer, 2005, p. 22). An important aspect was revealed in this case study; it showed that the attachment theory is a psychoanalytic theory and has researched the bond between mother and infant to see if it related to attachment behaviors, and indeed it did.

What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article?

The hypothesis of the study was to examine and validate that humans are born with an innate psychobiological system. This is what causes the attachment behavioral system which motivates individuals to seek significant others in their times of need.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on personality? How are these factors assessed or measured in the article?

The factors studied and assessed was the attachment theory. It also probed researchers to examine what causes human beings to become attached to certain types of people.

If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance. How does the view of personality in this article compare with historical views of personality?

These variables have been studied multiple times in the past; however in each study it demonstrates three main issues such as, the psychodynamic approach to personality which are the unconscious nature of attachment-system activation, defensive biases resulting from deactivating strategies, and the ways in which optimal functioning of the attachment system contributes to the development of a relatively autonomous personality Bowlby (Shaver & Mikulincer, 2005, p. 43).

What type of research design is used in the study? What instruments or measures did the researchers use to collect data?

The research design used in the study was observation with retrospective self-report data to classify infant’s quality of attachment to the mother, the “Attachment Q-Sort” for assessing young children’s attachment orientations, the “Adult Attachment Interview” to measure adult state of mind with respect to attachment, and several self-report scales to measure adult attachment style in peer relationships Bowlby (Shaver & Mikulincer, 2005, p. 40).

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or why not? In relation to the article, how have ethical considerations in personality psychology research changed over the years?

To conclude, this research article was conducted in an ethical manner. The researchers took the in to account to have the appropriate confidentiality paperwork signed by all participants. It appeared to be no bias, as they presented empirical evidence to support and back up their theories.

Reference

  • Dargis, M., Newman, J., & Koenigs, M. (2016). Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 7(3), 221–228. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1037/per0000147
  • Lurie, L. A., Levy, S., Rosenthal, F. M., & Lurie, O. B. (1943). Environmental influences: The relative importance of specific exogenous factors in producing behavior and personality disorders in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 13(1), 150–161. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1943.tb05989.x
  • Shaver, P., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Attachment theory and research: Resurrection of the psychodynamic approach to personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 39(1), 22-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2004.09.002

Cite this page

Environmental Influences on Personality: Childhood Experiences. (2021, Apr 23). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/environmental-influences-on-personality-childhood-experiences-essay

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment