# Ohm's and Kirchhoff's Laws Lab Report

Categories: Chemistry

## Abstract

In this experiment, we aimed to demonstrate and validate Ohm's Law (V = I * R) and Kirchhoff's Laws, including Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL). These laws are fundamental principles in electrical circuits, and this lab utilized a multimeter to measure current and voltage in both series and parallel circuits to test their applicability. Despite encountering some challenges with equipment and measurements, the results supported the hypothesis that Ohm's and Kirchhoff's Laws can be reliably used in electrical circuits.

## Introduction

Ohm's Law (V = I * R) is a fundamental equation in electrical engineering, describing the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in an electrical circuit. Kirchhoff's Laws, introduced by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff, consist of Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL). KVL states that the sum of voltage rises and drops around any closed loop in a circuit must be equal. KCL asserts that the total current entering a junction in a circuit must equal the total current leaving the junction.

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These laws serve as foundational principles for analyzing and understanding electrical circuits. To validate and apply these laws, we conducted experiments using a multimeter to measure current and voltage in both series and parallel circuits.

## Materials and Methods

The following materials were used in the experiment:

• Power Source
• Alligator Clips
• 1,000 Ohms Resistor
• 10,000 Ohms Resistor
• Multimeter

### Ohm's Law

1. Assemble the circuit as shown in Figure 1.
2. Set the multimeter to measure current (amps).
3. Install the resistor in series in the circuit.
4. Set the power supply to different voltage levels (e.

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g., 3V, 4.5V, 6V, 7.5V).

5. Record the current reading on the multimeter and compare it to the calculated current using Ohm's Law (I = V / R).

### Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

1. Assemble the circuit as shown in Figure 2.
2. Set the multimeter to measure voltage (volts).
3. Install resistors in parallel across the power supply.
4. Set the power supply to different voltage levels (e.g., 3V, 4.5V, 6V, 7.5V).
5. Record the voltage reading on the multimeter and determine if the total voltage dropped across the resistors equals the voltage added by the power supply, validating KVL.

### Kirchhoff's Current Law

1. Assemble the circuit as shown in Figure 3.
2. Set the multimeter to measure current (amps).
3. Install ammeters at all three points within the circuit.
4. Verify whether the current entering the junction is equal to the current leaving the junctions, confirming KCL.

## Discussion

The experiment proceeded systematically, although we encountered challenges along the way. Initially, we had difficulties with the multimeter, which was not providing accurate readings due to incorrect settings. Once resolved, we conducted experiments to validate Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws.

Regarding Ohm's Law, we measured current in a series circuit with different voltage levels. The results generally supported the hypothesis that the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance adheres to Ohm's Law. However, discrepancies in readings were observed, likely attributed to the quality and condition of the power supply and resistors, as well as rounding errors in calculations.

For Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, we examined voltage drops across resistors in parallel circuits. While the theory was upheld, we also encountered minor discrepancies in voltage readings, which could be attributed to the same factors as in the Ohm's Law experiment. Nevertheless, the overall trend supported KVL.

In the case of Kirchhoff's Current Law, constructing and validating the circuit proved more challenging. The complexities of the circuit and our understanding of its configuration caused delays. Eventually, we confirmed KCL by verifying that the current entering a junction equaled the current leaving the junctions. This aspect of the experiment was instrumental in reinforcing Kirchhoff's Laws.

In conclusion, our results generally supported the hypothesis that Ohm's and Kirchhoff's Laws are reliable principles for analyzing electrical circuits. Although variations in readings occurred, several factors contributed to these discrepancies, including equipment quality and rounding errors. Despite these challenges, the experiment provided valuable insights into the practical application of these fundamental laws.

## Conclusion

The experiment aimed to validate Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws (KVL and KCL) using a multimeter to measure current and voltage in series and parallel circuits. While we encountered some challenges, the overall results supported the hypothesis that these laws can be applied to electrical circuits. Variations in readings were attributed to factors such as equipment quality, resistor condition, and calculation errors.

Despite these minor discrepancies, the experiment served as a valuable learning experience, reinforcing the fundamental principles of electrical circuits and their analysis. The demonstration of Ohm's and Kirchhoff's Laws enhances our understanding of electrical engineering and its practical applications.

## Recommendations

Based on the experiment's outcomes, the following recommendations are suggested:

1. Ensure the multimeter is correctly set and calibrated before measurements to prevent inaccurate readings.
2. Use high-quality power supplies and resistors to minimize variations in voltage and resistance values.
3. Double-check calculations to minimize rounding errors when applying Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws.
4. Consider conducting additional experiments with more precise equipment to further validate the laws and reduce potential sources of error.
Updated: Dec 29, 2023