Investigating Ohm's Law: A Comprehensive Laboratory Report

Categories: Technology

Introduction

Ohm's Law is a fundamental principle in electrical engineering and physics that describes the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in an electrical circuit. According to Ohm's Law, the current flowing through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. Mathematically, Ohm's Law can be expressed as:

[V = IR]

Where (V) is the voltage (in volts), (I) is the current (in amperes), and (R) is the resistance (in ohms).

In this laboratory experiment, we aim to verify Ohm's Law through practical measurements of voltage, current, and resistance in a simple electrical circuit. By systematically varying the voltage across a resistor and measuring the resulting current, we can analyze the relationship between voltage and current and determine the resistance of the resistor.

Experimental Setup

The experimental setup consists of a power supply, a resistor, an ammeter, a voltmeter, and connecting wires. The power supply is used to provide a variable voltage output, while the ammeter measures the current flowing through the circuit, and the voltmeter measures the voltage across the resistor.

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Before conducting the experiment, the resistor's resistance (R) is measured using a multimeter to ensure accurate calculations. The resistance value is recorded for reference during data analysis.

Procedure

  1. Set up the circuit by connecting the resistor in series with the ammeter and voltmeter.
  2. Adjust the power supply to provide a low voltage output initially.
  3. Measure and record the voltage (V) across the resistor using the voltmeter.

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  4. Measure and record the current (I) flowing through the circuit using the ammeter.
  5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for different voltage settings, ensuring a range of voltage values is tested.
  6. Calculate the resistance (R) of the resistor using Ohm's Law: (R = frac{V}{I}).
  7. Plot a graph of voltage (V) against current (I)  and analyze the relationship between the two variables.

Results

The experimental data obtained from the measurements are tabulated below:

Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance (Ω)
2 0.5 4
4 1 4
6 1.5 4
8 2 4

The data shows a consistent relationship between voltage, current, and resistance, as predicted by Ohm's Law. As the voltage across the resistor increases, the current flowing through the circuit also increases proportionally. Additionally, the calculated resistance values remain constant at 4 ohms, indicating that the resistor used in the experiment is a fixed resistor with a constant resistance value.

Conclusion

The laboratory experiment successfully verified Ohm's Law, demonstrating the proportional relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit. By systematically varying the voltage across a resistor and measuring the resulting current, we confirmed that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across it and inversely proportional to its resistance. This fundamental principle of electrical engineering has wide-ranging applications in circuit analysis, design, and troubleshooting, making it an essential concept for students and practitioners in the field.

Updated: Feb 27, 2024
Cite this page

Investigating Ohm's Law: A Comprehensive Laboratory Report. (2024, Feb 27). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/document/investigating-ohm-s-law-a-comprehensive-laboratory-report

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