Homeless individuals are mostly victims of the psychological disorientation of life crises. As a result, homeless shelters should have an architectural design that promotes a counterbalanced feeling of healing and shelter from this street life distress.
Abraham Maslow’s theory of self -actualization is a psychological construct often referred to by social scientists involved in the study of homeless people. This humanistic theor y of personality can promote a design strategy that is flexible and user -centered.
A theory -to-practice grid arises when combined with appropriate architectural ideas from the pattern theory of Alexander (Alexander, et. al, 1977) and CPTED (Crime Preventio n through Environmental Design) (Poyner, 1983), which can promote a practical, intelligent approach to homeless shelter design.
Designing from the point of view of psychological personality theory may be particularly essential in the case of “”first -contact”” areas, such as the shelter pre -admittance region where homeless people apply for food, shelter and rehabilitation programs. It is because first impressions may contribute to the choice of a homeless person to engage or simply reject resettl ement into community (Davis, 2004).
Based on his earlier work on the physical environment and (Ulrich, et al., 1991; Ulrich, 1999), Ulrich (2001) laid out a Theory of Supportive Healthcare Design that puts forward design of healthcare s ettings that can encourage healing by eliminating environmental variables that are known to be stressful or have harmful effects on results such as loud noise, lack of windows, numerous patients in one room, rough flooring materials (e.
g., vinyl or linoleu m), and poor quality of indoor air. Supporting design employs “the inclusion of characteristics and opportunities in the environment that research indicates can calm patients, reduce stress, and strengthen coping resources and healthful processes by foster ing control, including privacy; promoting social support; and providing access to nature and other positive distractions” (pg. 54) in addition to eliminat e or redu ce negative factors .
Concrete is the most common material in terms of national building material for modern architecture prior to its extensive use in the nation. Concrete is the only material that can be produced locally in the country among the three major materials used in modern architecture, i.e.,
steel, glass and concrete. Concrete block is also a major national material for modern building and has a wide range of quality as well as use. High -quality blocks can be used in load -bearing walls, while in non -load -bearing walls, other concrete blocks ar e generally used. Because of the low price, concrete blocks are used even for internal walls of high -rise structures. Generally speaking, the range of quality and use results in well -adapted building techniques to local circumstances.
Adobe and Pinatubo st one are other materials commonly used by architects of modernism.
Pinatubo stone is a major material used to achieve a stone finish . Pinatubo stone is a kind of volcanic rock with a porous surface and perfectly complements concrete constructions. Bobby Man osa, a Filipino -style enthusiast , h e describes the significance of the three A’s in establishing the real Filipino style: awareness of the accessible materials in the nation, acceptance of the use of these materials, and assimilation of these materials in our design method.
Homeless facilities conduct variety of tasks, each requiring specific design approaches and solutions. For instance, it involves individual waiting and intake zones, work counseling and placement facilities, showers and lockers, dining rooms, social service counseling rooms and staff offices, plus residential rooms with separate entry and exit for service fields and living spaces (Berens, 2014). Tips for shelter design provided by homeles s people and shelter employees collected by Pable (2005) in her qualitative studies include: offer an ironclad way to keep one’s position in line that does not necessarily involve being physically in it.
Interviews with homeless shelter residents conducted by Pable and Fishburne revealed how residents interpret the size of their room or its furniture, the presence or absence of privacy, how they may and may not store their belongings, or how they are allowed or prevented from showing items that promote thei r identities. The need for appropriate storage room is mentioned by Davis (2004), Pable and Fishburne (2012), Potthoff, et al., and Pothukuchi (2003). Storage needs to be locked. Furthermore, there is a need for large enough closet space to hang shirts, pa nts, skirts or clothes.
Davis (2004) has a brief chapter on materials focusing primarily on building materials. He notes , “Solid -color cushions show dirt and stains more readily than do bright patterns” (pg. 103). He also said that furniture made of strong wood or covered with linoleum floor has been specifically designed for shelters, as have some beds which include storage. However, Pable (2005) says bedroom furniture should not be made of wood as bedbugs can nest into the grain of wood and become difficu lt to treat. Farmer (2009) reports a contemporary homeless shelter in downtown Dallas that includes a number of sustainability characteristics including a green -roof dining region, comprehensive daylighting, and a graywater system.
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