Criminology Theory - Rational Choice Theory

Categories: Criminology

Logical choice theory was influenced in the 1700's by a man name Cesare Beccaria, whose utilitarian views and ideas were accepted throughout Europe and the United States. This theory is likewise known as logical action theory implying the structure for understanding and frequently officially modeling social and financial behavior. It is the dominant theoretical paradigm in microeconomics. It is likewise the central to modern government and is used by scholars in other disciplines such as sociology and approach. Reasonable Option Theory is used by social scientists to understand human behavior.

This theory is the belief that male is a reasoning star who weighs means and ends, expenses and benefits, and makes a rational option. Beccaria's assisted to remove vicious and uncommon penalty in the nineteenth century, which at the time was very typical, and formed the basis for the classical theory of criminal activity, a school of idea that influenced the French Transformation and the establishment of the Eighth Amendment in the United States Constitution.

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Beccaria thought that individuals choose to take part in all behavior, criminal and non-criminal, and without the fear and certainty of extreme punishment for criminal offenses. People will continue to pick to dedicate those criminal activities. Beccaria thought that all people possess complimentary will. People utilize free choice to make logical decisions, such as whether the personal benefits are worth the threat of breaking the law by devoting a criminal activity. It is by complimentary will that individuals have the ability to follow through with those "rational" choices.

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To Beccaria, punishment needs to address avoidance instead of vengeance. He believed that the only method to hinder wrongdoers from continuing to commit more serious offenses is to ensure that the penalty is well matched for the crime. He believed the punishment ought to just be severe adequate to outweigh the individual advantages gotten from committing the criminal activity. A British theorist named Jeremy Bentham elaborated on Beccaria's views and proposed the idea that individuals choose their actions by whether they produce joy and avoided undesirable conditions.

With this theory laws were created to keep the community happy and punishment is only justified if it is used as a method of prevention. The popularity of the classical theory peaked in the 1800s but began to decline and was eventually neglected altogether by the majority of criminologists by the end of the twentieth century. During the mid-1970s, as positivist approaches towards the rehabilitation of known criminals began to prove ineffective, the popularity of the classical approach improved. Criminologists began to portray criminals to the public as rational planners who deserve to be punished. This modernized view of the classical school of criminology is now known as the rational choice theory and is used to explain why criminals commit crimes. According to the rational choice theory, criminals are people who share the same goals and ambitions as ordinary citizens, but choose to obtain those goals by illegitimate means.

The rational choice theory is based on the assumption that before choosing to commit a crime, the criminal considers personal factors or motivation for the crime, such as their immediate need for benefits, revenge, or excitement, and also situational factors, such as the severity of the consequences and the risk of apprehension. The rationality described by rational choice theory is different from the colloquial and philosophical uses of rationality. Rationality means in colloquial language sane or in a thoughtful clear headed manner. Routine activity theory is a sub-field of rational choice criminology, which was developed by Marcus Felson. Routine activity theory says that crime is normal and depends on the opportunities available. For example after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, meaning poverty, inequality and unemployment became a problem this gave people a reason to commit crimes.

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Criminology Theory - Rational Choice Theory. (2016, Jun 11). Retrieved from

Criminology Theory - Rational Choice Theory
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