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Controversial Role of Marine Protected Areas in Fishers Management Introduction Marine protected areas(MPAs), what Kelleher and Kenchington from IUCN mentioned in 1992 has become the most commonly used definition of MPAs, “Any area of inter-tidal or sub-tidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated ? ora, fauna, historical, or cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. ” (Kelleher and Kenchington, 1992).
The role of marine protected areas is always controversial because of the dispute at whether “no take” or not.
Some people think “no take” can protect diversity, abundance and average size of fish, while others think it may has adverse affect on marine industry. In this essay, there are 3 sections to this topic, the direct benefits of marine protected areas is the first, reasons why some fishers do not support designation of MPAs is the second, a personal judgement on MPAs based on research is the final.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the roles of the MPAs and to trade off benefits and negative effects.
Direct benefits of MPAs 2. 1 biological diversity S Chape and more thought MPAs are “a valid and measurable indicator of progress in conserving the world’s remaining biodiversity, or at least slowing the rate of loss. ” (S chape al, nd). MPAs can be managed as strict nature reserves, national parks, community conserved areas or managed resource areas in order to protect biological diversity. . 2 Fisheries “Management with MPAs by definition involves fishing rates that vary over space, thus increasing the importance of spatial aspects of the spatio-temporal dynamics of marine populations.
”(Louis W al, 2009) 2. 3 Science ;Education MPAs can be a science laboratory for experts and students as well as an education base for every people. Wide variety kinds of sea animals in MPAs can be used to do a lot of experiments and researches of habit of life. 2. 4 Recreation ;Tourism
MPAs bring revolutionary transform in recreation and tourism. Before MPAs were defined, many places were damaged by over-fishing. But today, with good conservation with marine, tourism and recreation play the dominant role in some MPA activities. Reasons for Controversy Some surface reasons for controversy, such as many fishers think MPAs want to allow the tourism industry move in to instead of traditional fishing industry. Even some fishers considers that MPAs equals to tourism benefits.
Based on these conceptions, “fishers do not see MPAs as an added value to the fishing industry in relation to its long-term sustainability. ”(coastal zone Belize,nd) In fact, essential issues cause above situation. One of these issues is that the information is not relayed directly to fishers, just through some people who not know intimately about traditional fishing industry development and present situations, and many fishers opinions on their industry are largely ignored.
This will cause both lack of enthusiasm and knowledge to face MPAs. Personal Judgement MPAs doing very well in marine science fields is undoubtedly, protecting and maintaining natural population structure and genetic diversity of marine organism and insuring management success in fished areas, some actions like solving some over-fishing problems or ocean pollution which influencing marine balance. However, from a social point of view, MPAs are not as succeed as they are in science.
The real reason why commercial and recreational fishers do not support MPAs is not their industry, habitat or interest will be limited. The essential reason is when government or experts want to develop a MPA, they rarely seek for opinions or give some lessons to local fishers. Many fishers do not learn natural character of MPAs, and they always receive a notification without any negotiations. MPAs make a contribution to whole world, so traditional fishers must make a concession in some times.
How to let these fishers know their compromise is correct is very important. For example, June 8th is the World Ocean Day, in that day, Taiwan is starting to carry out the policy about establishing the marine protected areas around the island, so every people can participate in this action of their own free will. Reference Kelleher G, Kenchington R. 1992. ‘Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. ’ A Marine Conservation and Development Report. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland, 79pp. . Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets nd, S Chape*,viewed 15 May 2013, 3. Louis W. Botsford, ‘Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas’, Fish Biology and Fisheries, March 2009, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 69-95 4. Fishers Perception of Marine Protected Areas in Belize nd, Coastal Zone Belize,viewed 15 May 2013,
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