The purpose of this coursework is to consider whether or not “The development of London docklands has opportunities for all”. It will explore both the positive and negative effects on the economy, the environment and the society. My hypothesis is the many good things have happen but few people have loss their jobs and homes. Overall I think it is good thing
London Docklands is an area situated in east London and lies on the River Thames about 5 km east of the city of London.
It about 25 km east of Heathrow Airport and 4km away from London City Airport. It is accessible from all major networks including M25 and M11. It has its own Docklands Light Railway (DLR) and a tube link from Canary Wharf tube station on the Jubilee line.
Before collected secondary date, we went to trip to London Dockland and collecting the primary data is to look at area comparison, car registration tally, doing the sketch and asking the questionnaire.
I am going to find out how the London Dockland changed by using the primary and secondary data.
The questions I am going to investigate are:
What development has taken place? – this question looks at the different projects that the Docklands has had
How have these developments affected the quality of life for people in this area? – I will look at the area Comparison
How have these developments affected employment opportunities? – I will look at the Docklands Questionnaires
In 1990, there are a ship that thing to lift before they got the plane but they made a ship bit bigger so they used the bigger ship to lift lots of things but it is can’t fit in dock because it is to small, it is shallow and Bridges and the narrow river were harder to travel down.
So they have to go to different place that it not shallow and small. The cargo ship has stopped using because now they used the plane which is easy and quick time. Planes had evolved and it was easier transporting them this way. The transport of using the one bus in London docklands which mean there will be so busy but now they are using dockland light railway (DLR) which is easy and quick to transport the London docklands.
In 1990, the people who lived the house and they know for long time the London dockland but the council form London docklands has rise the money and the poor people cannot afford it to buy the house because it is expensive so they have to moved out but the people who can lived there that they are rich.
In 1990, the people who worked in the ship and lift all the stuff. But In 1980 that people has lost their jobs which is Dockers lost their jobs due to the decline of the docklands because they stop using the ship. So Containerisation meant that fewer workers were needed to offload the ships. But now people got jobs for transport which is more bus, taxi and DLR.
Background information about London Docklands
Over on hundred years ago, ship brought goods like furniture, food, drink and leather goods to the London Docks. In this area, there was also ship building and lots of engineering goods being made.
There were loads of warehouses, factories and lots of terraced houses which let the workers live there so it was easier to go to work. All the money came from the docks where people worked. They got lots of things from other countries in the world.
During the Second World War in 1939, London docklands were ruined by bombing which damaged the areas. In the 1960’s, the area gets even worse damage because of greater foreign competition. They were better at doing things than docklands. The older docks were closed down because it became too small for the ships to go there. The ships because bigger to lift loads of things in countries.
Timeline for London Docklands
1967 – East India Dock closed
1968 – London Dock closed
1969 – St. Katherine Dock closed
1970 – Surrey Docks closed
1980 – West India Docks closed
Millwall Dock closed
1981 – Royal Docks closed
London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) is created
1982 – Enterprise Zone on the isle of Dogs is made
1987 – Docklands Light Railway opens between Tower Gateway, Island Gardens and Stratford
1998 – redevelopment of the Royal Victoria docks into business, housing, educational and leisure facilities starts
1999 – Canary Wharf area is increased with new buildings being made east of the main tower
New Jubilee underground railway line extension links Central London with Canary wharf, London Docklands and Stratford. The new Millennium Dome opposite the Royal Victoria and East India Docks.
As ships used more containers, larger ships were used to move these containers. Therefore larger docks were needed for the larger ships and many of the smaller docks closed down. Tilbury Docks is main dock in London which is 20 km away from the Isle of Dogs. The water at Tilbury dock is very deeper than the other smaller docks, therefore the largest ships can be dock there.
In 1981, the docklands were no more ship coming into the docks and the area was not used. The port of London Authority (PLA) said that employment went down from 25,000 in 1960 to 4,100 in 1981. For every one job lost in the docks, 3 other jobs in linked industries, therefore the rate of unemployment became worse.
In 1981, the government has made that the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up by the government in 1981. It made the area an enterprise zone and offered incentives to attract industries to the area. For 10 years the zone was rate free and almost no planning permission was needed. There are many different architectural designs as a result of the lack of planning permission – one such building is Canary wharf Tower.
Many companies have moved to Docklands area. The LDDC operated in for five years more than they needed too and stayed until 1996. In the 1990s 12 million square feet of office space was left empty because of the secession. The area did not do as well as expected financially. There is a contrast in the local community and this has lead to problem s and conflict.
An Enterprise Zone is an area which is used that to make the surrounding area richer.
Urban Development Corporation s – (UDCs)
Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) are public departments which were set up and work for the Local Government, Planning and Land Act 1980.
Myrdal’s Multiplier Effect