Computers And Transport Logistics
Third generation computer technology has greatly improved management and planning of logistics in many sectors. Computer technology has virtually erased time, accelerated the rate of change and modified the boundaries that define human relationships. The device can retrieve, store and compare huge amounts of data in very short time spans.
With regard to the military, centralization of the control of assets has been realized. This has in turn led to time compression whereby decisions and actions closely follow each other.
Reduced reaction time allows managers to better control their capabilities at all times as well as be well aware of the assets, their condition and the positions (Haley, Krishnan, 1995, p.47).
Economically, better asset control has enabled proper control of the development and acquisition of modern weaponry. This has greatly improved many nations’ military capability and the catering for domestic requirements. A shrinking world, resulting from better asset control, has led to increasing transport and communication speed which has occasioned close political, military and economic objectives linkages.
Decisions are thus made at the lowest level with all the facts and this is a show of good management.
The Advanced Logistics Centre of the Unites States Air Force applies electronic data processing in the management of logistics. It comprises of one integrated close loop logistic system utilizing the latest technology in the design, engineering, data processing and telecommunications. This reduces support and pipeline inventory due to fast transportation with the resultant effect of increased responsiveness of logistic systems (Plaut, 1997, p.422).
The wide use of computers has led to increased interrelationships of logistics elements. Supply, procurement and transportation functions have been linked. The logistics manager thus performs tasks related to maintenance, supply, personnel, procurement, accounting and data processing thus cutting on costs. For example, the use of Information Technologies and the Global Positioning System has reduced the logistics expenditure of the United States from 20% of GDP in 1996 to 10.5% of GDP in 1996 ( James, 2001, p.151).
Computers have enabled the development of integrated logistics management systems through the adoption of automatic data processing. Microminiaturization for both weapon systems and logistic processes as a result of application of modern computer technology has reduced logistic demand and also improved on logistic processes. Miniaturization results in microchips and molecular robots developed through microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices and nanotechnology.
Integrating Information technology into Intelligent Transportation Technologies is cost effective and time saving. Ocean carriers are using online systems to stream line business activities including self-service options and the tracing of ships. Through this, companies provide customers with real time price information, order management and shipment tracking information. Joint ventures have been formed among manufacturing, transportation and information technology companies which have enabled faster and efficient delivery of cargo to customers (Haley, Krishnan, 1995, p.56).
Intelligent Transport Systems utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the analysis, presentation, distribution and storage of data enabling fast and efficient planning, management and execution. GIS is used worldwide in the efficient linking, harmonization and management of transport processes. Satellite fleet management, intelligent routing plan, management of infrastructure resources and planning of distribution areas are attained thanks to the use of GIS (James, 2001, p.155).
With a view of minimizing transport costs, GIS enables the performance of simulations and analysis in order to optimize the territorial locations of warehouses. Such simulations include:
v Analysis of population data of an area to determine the possibility of establishing a distribution centre in the future.
v Locating nearest infrastructure like roads, ferry terminal or airport.
v Satellite imagery and 3D visualizations
v Establishment and visualization of service area based on road distance to and from distribution centre
Haley, G. T., Krishnan R. (1995) Its time for CALM: computer –aided logistics management, 25(4), 46-60. MCB UP Ltd.
James, J (2001). Information technology, cumulative causation and patterns of globalization in the Third World, Review of International Political Economy, VoL. 8, 147-162 .
Plaut, P.O. (1997), Transportation-communications relationships in industry.’ Transportation Research A31 (6), 419-429.
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Computers And Transport Logistics. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/computers-and-transport-logistics-new-essay