Computer structure and logic
Computer structure and logic
Learning Objectives and Outcomes -This assignment addresses the learning objective “Explain BIOS, POST, and derived processes.” The expected learning outcome that will result from completing the assignment is you will be able to describe the operation of BIOS and POST. In video 1.01 it talks about BIOS and CMOS and how they are different. The difference between BIOS and CMOS is that BIOS stored in ROM, they’re permanent and cannot be edited.
On the other hand CMOS stored in RAM, they’re nonvolatile can erase when power goes off and can be edited. BIOS or Basic Input Output System is software stored on a small memory chip on the motherboard. It instructs the computer on how to perform a number of basic functions such as booting and keyboard control. BIOS are also used to identify and configure the hardware in a computer such as the hard drive, floppy drive, optical drive, CPU, and memory.
BIOS contain a number of hardware configuration options that can be changed through the setup utility. Saving these changes and restarting the computer applies the changes to the BIOS and alters the way BIOS instructs the hardware to function. CMOS- or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor is a term usually used to describe the small amount of memory on a computer motherboard that stores the BIOS settings. It is usually powered by a cell battery which are said to last a life time on a motherboard, but will sometimes need to be replaced. Some signs of dead or dying CMOS battery are incorrect or slow system date and time and loss of BIOS setting.
Video 1.02 talks about system resources, and talk about how POST work and the various types of system resources. When power is turned on POST or Power-on-self-test is the diagnostic testing sequence that a computer’s basic input/output system runs to determine if the computer keyboard, RAM, disk drives, and other hardware are working correctly. If the necessary hardware is detected and found to be operating properly, the computer begins to boot, but if the hardware is not detected or is found not to be operation properly; the BIOS issues an error message which may be text on the display screen and a series of coded beeps.
There are four system resources. IRQ, I/O Addresses, Memory Address, and DMA- direct memory access. •An IRQ is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation. It communicates from hardware device to CPU. •An I/O addresses or Input/output is a number used to identify a peripheral device such as a disk, sound card or serial port and it communicates from CPU to device.
•A Memory Addresses- is the total amount of memory that can be addressed by the computer. They’re instructions and work is stored there. •DMA – which stand for Direct Memory Access, is a method of transferring data from the computer’s RAM to another part of the computer without processing it using the CPU, and it communicate from device to memory. •MBR- stand for Master Boot Record is a kind of boot sector stored on a hard disk drive or other storage device. •EEPROM- stand for Electronically Erasable Programmable ROM is programmable read only memory that can be erased and re-used .