Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 10 April 2016

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
If a toddler is sick they will say they are sick. Health management is dependent on the parent.

Washing hands and brushing their teeth are basic activities that a toddler can perform with the parents giving instruction.
Preschoolers care curious of their bodies and its functions.

They can also verbalize pain.At this age they are aware of their own body functions and when they are ailing.

They also have an abstract understanding of what health and factors causing illness.

If the parent lacks knowledge of health issues this could be a safety issue for the toddler.

Neglecting teaching the toddler how to brush teeth, cavities develop.

Anxiety can occur on the surrounding the body and the fear of mutilation and death concerns.

Preschoolers are also at risk for diseases if they are vaccinated or they are behind on their immunizations.
Poor hygiene and may not show interest in their appearance.

Depending on the beliefs of the parents the child may develop cavities, develop illnesses due to not immunizing the child. Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Can eat with their hands, often can use a spoon and drink from a cup.

Are usually weaned from the breast or bottle to a cup or Sippy cup.

They are capable of washing their own fruits/vegetables once instructed by the parent.

Are at risk in developing allergies, if they haven’t developed earlier.

They understand the differences between healthy and unhealthy foods, and will likely eat healthy unless the parent lets them eat they want.

1200 to 1800 calories per day is the recommended for school age children.

Difficulty swallowing.

At risk for cavities if the parents give the child a bottle of milk of juice at bedtime.May be obese or under weight

Eat a lot of junk food when allowed by the parent/caregiverDepending on their culture and the access to the different types of food. They may not have access to healthy foods.

If their families are busy and don’t have time to cook they will either skip a meal or get fast food, which can place them from the fatty contents into obesity. Pattern of Elimination:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Ready for potty training

Parents need to watch for sign of potty training i.e.: grabbing at their crotch or squatting down as if to go to the bathroomMost preschoolers have become independent with toileting.

Are capable of hygiene after toileting, doesn’t mean they clean themselves completely.Most have complete control of their bowel and bladder, can dress and undress themselves.

Their bowel and bladder patterns are almost as that of an adult.
Hard to potty train, parents can get frustrated.

Toddler can fail potty training if parent or parents become upset every time the toddler has an accidentSome are not independent with toileting, which can cause others to tease them.

Forget to do proper hygiene after going to the toilet or forget to wash their hands, flush toilet.5-7 million in the U.S. have problems with bedwetting and stool incontinence.

Able to complain if having problems with urination or with bowel movements.

Pattern of Activity and Exercise:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Most toddlers are very active

Able to run, climb and start training to learn to ride a tricycle, and roller skating.

Playing is their primary focus.

Can easily be separated from the parent for periods of time.Physical activity is important for health promotion. Can help prevent obesity.

Changes in motor skill increases their strength, balance and coordination.
Toddlers are very curious which could cause injury to child, especially if there is a chemical just left around for them to get into, such as alcohol, anti-freeze etc.

Leads to poisoning if ingested. If left for a second outside by a swimming pool the toddler may think they can swim, instead they drown.
Are place at times in front of the TV to keep them quiet. Can lead to not having an interest in learning just wanting to watch TV.

Expresses anger while playing could lead in time to other issues. (Pent up anger can lead to bullying, being mean to animals etc.)Parents allowing child to watch TV or play video games instead of interacting with them. Can lead them to become obese due to immobility and increased snacking due to boredom.

Some children are pressured both physically and psychologically into playing sports. Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Can learn and interpret objects and events to what the objects are used for or how they play with them.

Able to recognize some objects by name.

Able to interact with others their age. Play is more to what they see in life i.e. watched snow white and starts enacting part.

Constantly questions. Starting with the Why? (I call it the Why stage)Understands others feeling.

Have basic understanding of morality and ethics. (What is right and wrong).
At risk for developmental problems ( if a child is an only child and doesn’t interact with other children)

Some develop slower than others

Can have problems forming complete sentences, which causes problems of being understood.

Has imaginary friends, that they blame for their bad behavior5 to 10 percent of school age children have a learning disorder, due to either speech impediment, difficulty reading or writing.

If problems aren’t identified early can cause learning problems.

Pattern of Sleep and Rest:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Require 12 hours of sleep with naps during the day.

Needs to have a night time routine such as baths before bed, and assigned time for bed.

Requires 8 to 12 hours of sleep, less nap time or decreased nap time at this age.

Needs a nightly routine, such as bath, reading a book, alone time to unwind and fall asleep.Requires 8 to 12 hours sleep. Don’t need nap times.

Easily falls asleep
If over tired can cause the toddler not to be able to relax and fall asleep. Which can cause them to be less active the next day

If they have nightmares don’t wake them just soothe them back to sleep.

Some have difficulty falling asleep or stays up late and has difficulty the following day with concentration and easily falls asleep during the day.

Have increased nightmares or are scared of the dark which keeps them from falling asleep. A night light can help alleviate the problem.
Some can develop sleep disturbances such as sleep walking/talking or bed wetting.

Are at risk for injuries due to sleep walking.
Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Can walk, feed themselves, answer simple questions and follow directions and respond to their name.

In order to learn autonomy they need to become more dependent of themselves instead of others.

Continue to develop their sense of self through task-oriented and social experiences.

Begin to have their own clothing style and prefer to dress themselves.Are immersed in the process of self-discovery. Exploring and grow through physiological growth cognitive and social development.

Has and increasing desire for competitiveness and desires to master whatever they are doing.
Potential for conflict between toddler and toddler’s need for more autonomy and parental expectations and safety limits, especially if the parents don’t understand the need for autonomy.

If unable to perform tasks or contribute to the family, they may develop guilt and feelings of inadequacy.

Can become sensitive to criticism by othersPeers of the same age can affect the child’s feelings of self-worth and sense of belonging in a negative way resulting in a low self-esteem.

Those with chronic illnesses or disabilities worry about their peer relationships. Role-Relationship Pattern:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List 2 potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.They know their family members and have developed a mutual relationship based on what that person does for the child.

Fears strangers

Family is still important and plays a vital role in the child’s life, but there is an increasing desire to play with other children.

Show affection to loved ones.Developing more friendships and relationships outside the family. Although family environment provides a sense of security that allows the child to cope.

As they get older they take on responsibilities with the family and usually interact well with the family. At this age they understand their role within the family

Tend to not like a new sibling coming into the family. May ask that the infant be takin away.

Attaches to one parent and tends to cry if they leave or are left with other people.

Those that have sensory or developmental issues usually play by themselves or do not show emotion towards anyone.

Relate to older children and may not play well with children their own age.
This group also can have sensory or developmental issues usually playing by themselves or show no emotions towards anyone.

This age group if not given limitations or setting expected behavior can be at risk for problems. Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Genital exploration and masturbation is normal occurrence in the toddler.

Becomes more curious about genital organs and may touch their genitalia during diaper change.Have gender awareness and they usually identify with their own gender.

Develop curiosity towards the opposite gender.

Develop breasts, pubic hair and other signs indicating there onset of puberty. Increased awareness of their body, its functioning and the need for sexual identity. Naturally curious about sex.
May act inappropriately by touching themselves in front of others or may try and touch others. The parent needs to direct them to the appropriate behavior.

If parents use cute words for describing the child’s genitals this could cause a potential problem. Using the correct words will not confuse the child.

There could be a potential problem if the preschooler is teased about their interest in sexual information. The parent should give simple but accurate answers.

Preschoolers might not like a certain gender. This may indicate possible negative body image or a struggle with his or her own gender identity.If the parent is unable to or unwilling to discuss sexual matters with them could cause a potential problem. This could result in unsafe sex if the wrong information is obtained from their friends.

May dress inappropriately to get sexual attention.
Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List wo potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.Their temperament is the foundation for their ability to cope.

They develop new ways to cope with each new stressor. Such as throwing temper tantrums or they may cling to their parent out of fear.

They utilize the same coping mechanisms as the toddler, such as separation anxiety, regression, denial, repression and projection.

May use a safety blanket or a doll as security.Coping mechanisms for school-age is the use of defense mechanisms, controlling behavior, use of repetition, humor and exercise.

They also may cope with listening to music, talking to friends or engaging in sports or activities.
Those that have a difficult temperament are less adaptable and have more moods that are negative. They may use aggressive behaviors such as kicking, or punching, or may regress to an earlier stage.

These behaviors can be distressing to parents and cause them to feel ineffective in their roles.

They also use regressive behavior as the toddler where they refuse to follow directions. This can include persistent tantrums.

May become withdrawn, day dreaming behavior is normal or may indicate a sensory or developmental problem.Life stressors could include competition, homework, failure at home or school and decisions whether to cheat, steal or join a certain group of peers.

Factors for at risk are depression including homelessness, death of a parent, divorce, hospitalization, chronic illness, and learning problems. This could lead to the child using drugs or alcohol or they may want to harm themselves or others.

Pattern of Value and Beliefs:

List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.

List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.The toddler will respond with good behavior is given positive feed- back. Healthy behaviors are expressions of positive values and beliefs. These are learned.

They learn family values and beliefs about what is right and wrong. Praise should be intermixed with adequate, controlled discipline.
Preschoolers begin to demonstrate some internal controls over actions and behaviors.

Preschoolers attend church, learn prayers and are taught religious beliefs from their caregivers.
Cultural, religious and parental values influence the school-age child’s ethical and moral development.

School-age children are able to make decisions related to moral and ethical issues. They know right from wrong.

Parents may often only attend to toddlers when they are misbehaving.

Caregivers do not use positive reinforcement and/or they do not discipline child for bad behavior.

Preschoolers, like toddlers, lack fully developed consciences. Immaturity limits the consistency and effectiveness of internal controls. This may lead to rule breaking and disrespect to everyone around him or her.

Peers or inappropriate content on television can negatively influence preschoolers.School-age children may bend to peer pressure in a negative way to “look good” for their peers.

School-age children may frequently lie due to fantasy, exaggerations and inaccurate understanding.

Short Answer Questions

Address the following based on the above assessment findings. Expected answers will be 1-2 paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

1)Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

As a child moves from being a toddler through preschool to school-aged, they are faced with many challenges to overcome. Development growth, which is subject to the child’s environment and sphere of influential people and pressures in their lives, is directly shaped and guided by their family’s culture, religion and value/belief system.

The differences are seen in how each developmental phase interacts and responds within each health assessment pattern. The toddler and preschool child need more structure and routine, whether it’s brushing their teeth, eating or bedtime rituals. School-aged children take the values and learned behaviors of being a toddler and build upon them as they move toward building their own self-concept and sense of identity. There are similarities as the children strive for autonomy and the ability to express themselves verbally. As the child continues to learn, they will develop an understanding of good behaviors and bad behaviors

2)Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.

When the nurse is caring for a child, the nurse must remember that they are essentially caring for two patients, the child and the parent (Jarvis, 2012). For a nurse, the assessment, examination and interaction with a child patient offer its own set of challenges and require a different approach from that of an adult. When dealing the toddler and preschooler, the nurse should interact with the caregiver, giving the child the opportunity to see the nurse’s interaction with their caregiver. This allows the child to see that the caregiver has accepted and trusts the nurse. For the toddler and the preschooler, the parent will be providing most, if not all of the health history. With the pre-school-age population, they may be the sole source of important data to the history (Jarvis, 2012).

The nurse should interview the child and caregiver together, and they should be present at all exams. With children of each stage of development, the nurse must be cognizant of verbal and non-verbal cues provided by the child. The nurse should be mindful that there could be cultural and/or spiritual considerations to take into account, like when undressing a child of the opposite sex. The nurse needs to ensure that the caregiver and the child feel comfortable with and during the interview, assessment, examination and educational/patient teaching phases of the visit.

Strategies that the nurse might incorporate include awareness of the various developmental stages that children go through. When performing a physical assessment of a child the nurse should be at eye level. When talking to the child and explaining concepts the nurse should use simple language that they child can understand. The nurse should allow the child to hold instruments, like a stethoscope, during the physical exam to help them feel like they are involved in their own care. Sharing reading materials or media to look at can help divert their attention away from the nurse.

References:

Edelman, C., & Mandle, C., (2010). Health Promotion through the Life Span. 7th ed. St. Louis, MI: Mosby.

Jarvis, C. (2012). Physical Examination & Health Assessment 6th ed. St. Louis, MI: Mosby.

Free Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Essay Sample

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  • University/College: University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 10 April 2016

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