Essay, Pages 8 (1916 words)
The following is a brief guideline of what the Internal Assessment should entail. Ensure the sections of the I.A. are presented in the same order (as the bold-print words) below. USE THE SYLLABUS TO GUIDE YOU AS WELL. 1. Theme is clearly typed on the first page (top) of draft. 2. Topic is clearly typed on the first page (after Theme) of draft. Select a Theme and a Topic you can identify with so as to present a well written IA. 3. Introduction (5 marks)
Introductory paragraph – Theme and topic are introduced and the relationship between them is clearly written.
Purpose of research – This should be the last sentence in the introductory paragraph. Therefore, the sentences MUST be coherent in order to arrive at the purpose. DO NOT put in a sub-section. Statement of problem – This must be in a new paragraph (or sub-section).
The problem of the study MUST be clearly stated. Note the problem of the research is not one sentence or a hypothesis.
This must take into consideration your objective of the research and the value of the research. Do not confuse the problem of statement with the introductory paragraph. Educational value of the research – This is a part of the statement of problem. However, you may separate it and place in a new paragraph or sub-section. Nonetheless, you MUST ensure that the paragraphs are coherent.
Ensure you state the educational value of the research to YOU and also the PARTICIPANTS or any other person you know will come in contact with the research (direct; indirect).
Research questions – Ensure that the research questions are clearly written. In your case ensure that your objectives are clearly written. Definition of technical terms used in the study – all term technical terms that will be used in the study must be clearly defined. Place in alphabetical order. Note if you already defined some of the terms in previous paragraphs there is no need to be repetitive.
4. Literature Review (8 marks)
See page 427 of the Jennifer Mohammed.
Literature must relate to the area (theme, topic, problem) being researched. Four (4) to six (6) different sources – Example: newspaper (1), textbook (1), journal (1), professional paper (1), oral history (1), etc. Ensure the sources used are relevant/related to the topic being researched. Do not solely depend on foreign literature; incorporate local literature (contemporary and old) from authentic persons. Use the research questions/ objectives to aid with this section. The research questions/ objectives should be able to aid in source selection and what should be included in your review. Paragraph structure; no sub-section(s).
Ensure you use appropriate in text citation (APA Style) to give your sources credit and avoid the chance of being guilty of plagiarism. Ensure you write in your own words. 5. Data Collection Sources (4 marks)
Paragraph structure; no sub-section(s)
Where was data/information collected – Study area. How was data collected – Quantitative/qualitative method(s); primary and secondary sources. Explain that you utilized both primary and secondary sources to collect information. Describe how you collected data using primary sources – In a new paragraph. You MUST state that primary data was collected from ‘X’ number of persons. Note: If the population is small use the entire population; if the population is large use a small sample. State how the participants were selected.
State how the research instrument (e.g. Questionnaire) was administered. Describe the timetable used to administer the instrument – did you take one week to administer the instrument? Did you have a pre-selection process then administered the instrument on another day? You MUST describe how you collected the data. Therefore, your timetable is imperative.
Describe the instrument – how many open and close-ended questions did you have on the research instrument? Describe how you collected information using secondary sources – in a new paragraph. Since you already wrote the Literature Review you MUST have used secondary sources. Therefore, describe how you used them. Do not write the name(s) of the secondary sources used.
You may state that you utilized ‘X’ number of books, newspaper articles (local; foreign), and Internet sources to collect relevant information in order to write the Lit. Review. Or, that you consulted secondary sources to aid in your overall presentation of the research. Describe how the use of the sources were relevant and contributed to understanding the area being researched (topic, problem). 6. Presentation of Data (8 marks)
Place two (2) diagrams on one page.
All diagrams MUST be well labelled and an annotation must follow each diagram. Annotations should be concise (do not exceed three sentences). Present all relevant data – All data that is relevant in answering your research questions and relevant to the problem MUST be presented. If there were other data that you received that is associated with the topic but not the research question may also be included. Note that the questions presented in the Appendices (Interview/Questionnaire) must be used to present data.
Place two diagrams on one page. DO NOT PRESENT DATA THAT WAS NOT COLLECTED. Use a variety of appropriate charts and diagrams. This variety should comprise of at least six (6) different diagrams. These may include: line graph, histogram, scatter gram, pie chart, bar graph, photograph and text. It is imperative to note that the use of line graphs, histograms and scatter grams may not be appropriate for presenting data. For instance, line graph is used to show continuous data. If the data can be used for interpolation then it is appropriate to use a line graph. This means that data should be able to be read between two points.
A line graph is appropriate to show statistics such as the number of death for a given year because the data is continuous. Additionally, a histogram may not be appropriate for the research conducted by you because this too shows continuation. For instance, data which shows month or years may be presented using a histogram. Therefore, since your research is normally on one (1) area and period and may not show continuation over time, the use of line graphs and histograms are not appropriate. It is recommended that you do not use three-dimensional graphs. This is due to the challenges which markers face in relation to reading the diagrams.
Pie chart and bar graphs are the most common charts used. Nevertheless, there is a format which many individuals ignore while presenting using these charts. When presenting a pie chart the slices must presented in descending order (largest to smallest) in a clockwise direction. However, there are exceptions. For example, if one is following the same sequence the rule does not necessarily apply. Photographs are sometimes used in presenting findings. However, if the photograph is not related to the study; it serves no purpose.
Therefore, if you use a photograph that shows the theme/topic the picture must be vivid – the reader should not be focused on something not related to the study. 7. Analysis of Data (10 marks)
(In this section students MUST ensure they explain the results garnered from the research, why the results were yielded and identify trends, patterns and anomalies). Interpret ALL data presented – Ensure you explain what the statistics/data presented in the previous section mean to you (in relation to the topic, problem and research questions). In other words, refer to the research questions to assess the data – look for trends, patterns, relationships, anomalies, variations and clusters. Explain the meaning of the data collected (in relation to the research questions). 8. Discussion of Findings (12 marks)
The Lit. Review MUST be used to present this section – This is where you compare and contrast YOUR findings with those that were presented in the Literature Review and the implications of the findings. If there were similarities and differences you must explicitly state that and show the similarity and/or difference with YOUR findings and previous research (the information presented in the Literature Review).
No new literature is to be introduced in this section – only discuss what was presented in the Literature Review. DO NOT confuse this section of the IA with the previous section. See Jennifer Mohammed. 9. Conclusions, Limitations and Recommendations (8 marks)
Conclusion (2 marks) – This section is where the research objectives and research questions are assessed. Answer the research questions based on your findings and the findings of previous researchers. Also present areas of contention in relation to research objectives. Present new and interesting findings (if any). Limitations (2 marks) – Write the limitations and recommendations in a paragraph structure; no bullets.
Explain about two (2) issues that impeded the research process (what limitations did you encounter throughout the research?). This may include financial challenges (example: no money to print questionnaires), persons not returning questionnaires etc. However, the challenge of time and weather conditions should not be included.
This is due to the fact that time is not considered a constraint because you must learn to manage your time and set a time table to collect data and weather conditions are not permanent and data can be collected on another day. Recommendations (4 marks) – Make about two (2) practical recommendations in relation to the research problem. These recommendations must be possible and not already implemented. Also explain the reasons for making the recommendation. 10. Bibliography
Use the American Psychological Association (APA) format/style. See Jennifer Mohammed. 11. Appendices Present the research instrument – Questionnaire and/or Interview questions. Write a short paragraph explain the purpose of the Questionnaire and the ethical considerations that will be put in place. Ensure the instructions are clearly written and the top of the Questionnaire.
Clearly state that the name of the participant SHOULD NOT be written anywhere on the paper. If you used Interview as the only research instrument ensure that you have a paragraph which explains the purpose of the interview and the ethical considerations before the questions are presented. At the end of the Questionnaire and the Interview place the words – THANK YOU. Approximately fourteen (14) questions are appropriate. This is inclusive of open and close-ended questions. 12. Overall Presentation and Writing Skills (5 marks)
You will be graded based on the use of grammar and writing skill (8 marks) and the way in which they presented the entire research in terms of the sections and the order in which they are presented (4 marks).
Allocation of marks/ mark scheme – Marks are allocated based on the mark scheme in the syllabus (pages 37-41). DO NOT PLAGIARIZE!
The IA is marked out of 60. This contributes to 40 % of your CAPE grade. Font: Times New Roman; size 12. You may bold or underline heading (not both); but do not increase the font size or style for headings. Double line spacing.
Number all pages except the cover page.
Each section is to be presented on a new page.
Length: 2000 – 2500 words. Do not exceed the word limit. Marks will be deducted if the word limit is exceeded. The Table of Contents is necessary for your paper.
Only one draft will be collected (then the final submission). Suggested number of page(s) per section:
Introduction – 1 ½ to 2
Literature Review – 2 ½ to 3
Data Collection Sources – 1 – 1 ½
Presentation of Data – this may vary. Remember to present two (2) diagrams on one page. Analysis of Data – 1 ½ to 2
Discussion of Findings – 1 to 1 ½
Conclusions, Limitations and Recommendations – 1 to 1 ½