1. How have businesses in India developed in a different way from their western counter parts?
India, from 1947 to 1991 followed the socialist system of industrial development, where the major markets were controlled by the state. The western countries have actually followed a policy of free enterprise and commercialism throughout the exact same time duration. The Indian economy was limited by the License– Permit– Quota Raj, due to which the opportunities of establishing brand-new companies were minimal. This policy insulated the Indian economy from the outside world, and resulted in monopolies in the public sector which were inefficient, comparable to the U.
S.S.R. Post liberalisation, with elimination of these restrictions, the businesses in India, totally free from the shackles of the authorization system have grown as a fast lane with enhancing efficiencies. Nevertheless a number of organisations, which could not deal with the competition, fell by the wayside.
The western economies have in the capitalistic environment, finished from family run organisations to control by institutional financiers to manage by personal equity companies oftentimes, whereas, their Indian equivalents still have a big percentage run by household run companies and institutional financiers managed by the government.
Numerous of the PSU’s in India which have survived the post– liberalisation opening of the economy are monopolies in their particular markets and today are rather competitive on the global phase. The household run organisations complete increasingly with each other and try to find opportunities in newer areas, including international markets. In the western world, there is a growing trend of consolidation with oligopolies emerging in nearly all industries, which are being controlled by PE firms.
In general, India’s type of ownership has actually hardly changed over the previous decade. The department of earnings made by household companies in between those in their first, second and third or older generations has remained quite consistent.
2. Why has Indian organisation developed in this way?
Indian businesses have developed this way mainly because of two reasons: 1. India followed the socialist policy post independence, which converted the British legacy to public run institutions, and followed a policy of nationalization whereby control of industrial output was controlled by the government. The license – quota – permit raj severely restricted the Indian entrepreneurs from developing new businesses. The family run businesses with deep pockets and good political connections expanded their sphere of influence from their core businesses into unrelated areas where they saw an opportunity to grow. With reforms taking place post 1991 in a gradual manner, many new and existing businesses managed very well to adapt to the changing environment, taking advantage of the technology advances which had already taken place in the western world.
2. With a largely agricultural based economy, the Indian government had focussed on related infrastructure, leading to a weak over all infrastructure for industry. This has led to difficulties in starting new businesses. Similarly, regulations involved in starting new businesses are severely restrictive and cumbersome which is discouraging to entrepreneurs
3. Will it continue to?
Major reforms in several areas are sorely required if Indian businesses and the Indian economy are to maintain the growth trajectory. If these happen, Indian businesses will transform into real global players in a few years. If reforms are soft-pedalled there is a very good chance the Indian business growth story will come to an early end.
4. Can the aspirations it has raised be met?
Yes, the aspirations it has raised can be met. There is every reason to believe that the decision makers in Indian governance recognize what needs to be done and will act accordingly, although not at the pace required. The overall momentum generated by India Inc. should carry it through the current set of problems it is facing. The pool of skilled professionals combined with a large population with a growing purchasing power will project India to the big league. The relatively slower growth rates in the developed economies will give Indian firms the opportunity to scale up to global level at a fairly rapid pace.
5. And is this new form of capitalism good for India—and the world?
The new form of capitalism called capindialism is good for India, at least for the coming generation. As India transforms into one of the largest economies of the world, the moderate growth rates as compared with China, and somewhat controlled, India will be able to protect itself and therefore the world from unexpected shocks. If the country maintains its current rate of growth it is expected to become the world’s third-largest economy sometime after 2030, and hundreds of millions of people will lift them out of poverty. The Indian businesses which survive the growth will be transformed into world class and be controlled indirectly by the Indian public.
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