Traditional electronic commercialism is limited, because it can non supply direct information required approximately merchandises to online consumers. The engineering presented in this paper shows the undertaking overview of how Augmented Reality ( AR ) can be used to assist get the better of the restrictions and heighten e-commerce systems. Progresss in web and nomadic communicating engineerings enabled transmutations of markets to the signifiers of E-commerce. However, current E-commerce engineerings can non supply adequate information on the physical dimension, stuff colour, and haptic feeling of the merchandises.
There exists cardinal disagreement between the internet-based cyber universe and the user ‘s existent environment. By superposing 3D practical merchandises on the user ‘s existent environment, Augmented Reality ( AR ) engineerings might decide this disagreement. However, AR executions frequently require bulky substructures and/or arduous installings, and therefore are non easy available. In this paper, we present a marker-free, easy-to-use, and stand-alone AR system based on optical maser projection tracking ( AR Pointer ) . A paradigm of Augmented Ecommerce system was developed based on AR Pointer engineering.
Using this system, untrained users can merely ‘Put & amp ; experience a merchandise ‘ in order to happen the lucifer of the practical theoretical account of a merchandise in the existent environment. This paper besides gives the overview, ends, and aims of the undertaking and besides the methods used to work out the jobs and the interaction with clients to whom we are taking and besides the resources needed to implement this undertaking.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Electronic Commerce, User Centered Design.
This paper chiefly deals with the overview of the usage of augmented world in e-commerce and the engineerings involved in developing new tendencies.
As we all know execution of an e-commerce concern solution involves legion challenges on manner to harvesting benefits. Since the center of 1990 ‘s the world-wide spread of Internet engineerings and services enabled web-based Ecommerce services. Up to show, B2B ( Business to Business ) and B2C ( Business to Client ) E-commerce markets have grown steadily, and more and more people are using E-commerce services. Recently, in add-on to Internet-based online retailing, E-Commerce has been expanded to mobile environments and populating suites by usage of nomadic phones and Digital TV sets. The major advantage of E-commerce is convenience in commercial minutess: a user can easy seek for a merchandise and compare it with other merchandises in a short sum of clip merely by mouse-clicking or by the usage of any haptic devices in-store. However, E-Commerce has deprived users of the world. Planar images and texts on the screen are non sufficient to supply information on the physical dimension, material coloring material, texture, haptic feeling, and use feedback of a merchandise. Most of those who have online shopping experience would be persuaded that we might hold unpleasant surprise of having merchandises different from our outlooks.
The major difference between the feelings on the images and the existent merchandises is due to the cardinal disagreement between the existent environment and the cyber universe. To decide this difference, 3D practical merchandises can be provided by utilizing web 3D tools such as Viewpoint or Cult3D. They may supply rich experience to the users [ 1 ] , but still 3D practical merchandises are non in the same context as the user ‘s existent environment. To right decide the disagreement, the user ‘s existent environments which may home or office and the practical object i.e. the merchandise should be mingled. By superposing 3D practical environment on the user ‘s existent environment, Augmented Reality ( AR ) engineerings are used to unify existent and practical environments [ 2 ] : the size and other physical belongingss of the merchandises can be expressed in the user ‘s existent environment context. Augmented world ( AR ) refers to any package application that combines a direct representation of the universe with a computer-enhanced version of it. This can happen with any of the senses, but is likely the most dramatic when focused on ocular information. Because of this general ocular focal point, augmented world is often a user ‘s webcam overlaid with contextually relevant graphical information. Like many tools, AR ‘s usefulness depends on how it is employed.
Goals and aims of the undertaking:
The chief aims and ends of our undertaking are
To develop a system that can unite an ecommerce proto type with the web content and AR engineerings.
To develop this engineering with less cost and more effectual.
To fulfill the clients without doing any problems to the clients.
Restrictions of utilizing Augmented Reality engineerings:
From early 1990 ‘s Augmented world ( AR ) was supplying immersive feeling, which has been one of the most attractive research subjects in the human computing machine interaction and computing machine artworks Fieldss. With the promotion in hardware devices, tracking engineerings, and show engineerings, AR executions are available on commercially on the computing machine systems. However, AR has non been successfully utilized in many practical applications, particularly in E-commerce applications, because of its restrictions and proficient troubles. Some of the troubles are listed below.
Use of Unwieldy Head-Worn Displays
Lack of the base entirely systems
a. Bulky construction and complicated constellation:
Augmented Reality systems have been developed on the Virtual world engineerings because they both have some proficient similarities. In most research and development, AR employed VR tracking and expose devices that are frequently bulky and heavy, and necessitate laboratory installings of sourcing devices. Vision based tracking engineerings, such as ARToolKit system [ 4 ] , frequently use unreal markers, and therefore do non necessitate hardware installing in the environment. However, markers need to be installed and calibrated in progress. These are some of the practical jobs which may ensue in tracking failure.
B. Use of HWD:
In AR applications, picture diaphanous shows are preferred to optical diaphanous shows for higher enrollment truth. However, video diaphanous shows are frequently unmanageable and fatiguing, impeding user ‘s natural position of and interaction with the existent environment. Thankss to recent proficient progresss, AR has been successfully ported on handheld devices such as PDA ‘s and nomadic phones [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] , showing the potency of bring forthing practical applications. Hand-held AR systems may be used in many applications including coaction [ 5 ] and pilotage [ 13 ] .
c. Lack of Stand-Alone Systems:
AR integrates many advanced engineerings, such as trailing, show, picture, and calculation engineerings, because of that it has been hard to bring forth a stand-alone system. For tracking systems, most of the engineerings require installing of sourcing devices, on which tracking devices physically depend. Although vision based tracking systems do n’t necessitate sourcing devices, they rely largely on pre-installed markers [ 4 ] [ 14 ] . Inertial trackers work as a stand-alone trailing system, but the tracking information they provide can non be used to build geometrical dealingss between the existent and the practical environment, which is required for image sheathings. To sum up, bing AR systems are dependent on tracking substructures or accoutrements such as markers.
To bring forth practical applications including E-commerce applications, portable, marker-free, easy-to-use, and stand-alone AR system is desirable. Such an AR system can be used in mundane E-Commerce life of untrained users.
Augmented Reality arrow system:
Diffractive optical elements ( DOE ) transform a individual optical maser beam into assorted structured visible radiation forms. These forms, projected on a planar construction such as walls, floors, tabular arraies change their forms as the distance and the orientation between the optical maser and the plane alteration. Through ciphering the geometrical relation between the plane and the optical maser, the optical maser forms can be used in topographic point of markers that are widely used in vision-based tracking systems. In other words, a projected DOE form may play a function of a marker to supply tracking information.
I. Use of Laser Devices:
Laser arrow has been frequently used in Human Computer Interaction ( HCI ) applications in order to back up interactions among computing machine systems, ocular environments, and homo. It has been used as a 2D indicating device in conferences or presentations in topographic point of traditional indicating devices such as mice [ 9 ] [ 10 ] . Laser arrow has besides been used as a travel assistance device for unsighted people [ 11 ] . In this system, a stereo camera was used to cipher the deepness to the pointed surface. A red-pass filter was besides used for hardiness of image analysis. In collaborative AR environments, optical masers have been used as an interaction device to choose, travel, and revolve ocular elements [ 12 ] . However, to the best of our cognition, optical masers have non been used as a real-time trailing device up to show.
two. AR Pointer System Components:
AR Pointer system is composed of a optical maser with a DOE, a picture camera, and an optional LCD proctor. A optical maser and a picture camera are combined into one unit to be used as a trailing and video gaining control device. An optional LCD proctor can be used as a show unit, to compose a handheld AR system together with laser-camera unit.
For enrollment information computation and practical object sheathing, the laser-camera unit can be connected to any type of calculating systems. Depending on the computer science system, AR Pointer system could be constructed as a desktop system ( Fig. 1 ) [ 2 ] or a nomadic system ( notebook Personal computer / tablet Personal computer / PDA / mobile phone ) . As a nomadic unit, AR Pointer can be used besides as a handheld AR system as in TransVision [ 5 ] or NaviCam [ 13 ] ( Fig. 2 ) [ 2 ] .
AR Pointer system is distinguished from the old AR systems, demoing many advantages. First, AR Pointer is a stand-alone system: there is no demand of arduous installing procedure, bulky and unmanageable trailing devices, or marker installings and standardizations. Second, it is besides extremely nomadic and easy-to-use as in stopper and play peripheral devices. Third, indicating with the optical maser forms, AR Pointer system can cover practical merchandises on any two-dimensional surface of user ‘s existent environment. These advantages enable AR Pointer system to be used in mundane E-commerce life of untrained users.
Fig. 1. Desktop AR Pointer system. Fig. 2. Mobile AR Pointer system
Calculation and transmutations:
There are three major co-ordinate systems in AR Pointer system. The optical maser co-ordinate system ( L ) is used to depict DOE pattern characteristic places. The tabletop co-ordinate system ( T ) is used to stand for the place and orientation of the optical maser forms projected on the planar surface. Last, the camera co-ordinate system ( C ) is used to stand for image co-ordinates of measurings ( the optical maser forms ) and to cover the practical merchandises in augmented positions.
There are two of import co-ordinate transmutations, each of which should be calculated On-line or off-line.
TCL: from the optical maser co-ordinate to the camera co-ordinate transmutation
TCT: from the tabletop co-ordinate to the camera co-ordinate transmutation
Parameters of optical maser co-ordinate system are the optical maser DOE get downing point ( OL ) and the DOE form characteristics ( Xi ) . Parameters of camera co-ordinate system are the focal point ( Oc ) , field of position ( FOV: horizontal ( ? H ) and perpendicular ( ? V ) ) , and image declaration ( Sx, Sy ) . These parametric quantities can be calculated off-line except for the image declaration ( user may stipulate the image declaration in run-time ) [ 2 ] .
Laser to Camera Coordinate Transformation:
The transmutation between the optical maser co-ordinate system and the camera co-ordinate
System should be known in order to stand for the beams in a common co-ordinate system.
We used an off-line standardization method, which is described in the followers.
( 1 ) The optical maser form was aligned perpendicular to a ocular marker, and the distance between the optical maser and the marker was measured.
( 2 ) The camera image of the ocular marker was taken with the optical maser switched off.
( 3 ) The 3D ocular marker co-ordinates were measured.
( 4 ) The camera airs was computed utilizing an optimisation method based on the 3D marker places and the 2D image co-ordinates.
The Prototype of AR Pointer System:
Our paradigm degree Fahrenheit AR Pointer system can be composed of a optical maser with a 5×5 grid form DOE, an IEEE-1394 picture camera, and an LCD proctor ( Fig. 3 ) [ 2 ] . The optical maser and the camera were placed parallel and apart. As the distance between the optical maser and the camera increases, the tracking truth might be improved.
Fig. 3. Images used for optical maser
to camera transmutation computation with optical maser on Fig. 4. AR Pointer system hardware constellation
( top ) and off ( underside )
Prototyping Augmented E-commerce Web Sites:
We built an Augmented E-commerce system based on our baronial stand-alone AR Pointer system. Fig. 5 [ 2 ] shows the Augmented E-commerce paradigm embedded to an E-Commerce web site. The scenario is really intuitive. A user hunts for a merchandise online and drag-and-drops the 3D theoretical account of an interesting merchandise onto the AR window.
AR Pointer system, so, registers the practical object on the user pointed topographic point in the existent environment. The user interacts with the practical objects by traveling and revolving in order to gauge the dimension and form of the merchandise, and to happen the lucifers with the room environment. In other words, users can ‘Put & amp ; experience a merchandise ‘
Using Augmented E-commerce system, users ‘ shopping experience can be greatly improved. Users can comprehend the merchandises in his/her office or place environment through LCD proctor without have oning unmanageable HMD ‘s or HUD ‘s.
Fig. 5. Augmented E-commerce
We have performed usability trials of the system. Untrained users could put the practical merchandises with no trouble, and perceive the size of the bookshelf visually comparing with documents of A4 size. In another experiment, users placed a practical plaything truck beside toy automatons. Users estimated the size of the truck easy by comparing with other mention objects such as a sodium carbonate can and a athleticss ticker. As a stand-alone system, users besides could use AR arrow to put practical merchandises on assorted topographic points ( on the wall and on the desktop in our experiments ) .
Discussions with top direction:
A key in emerging media is non merely to accommodate to the latest engineerings, but besides to expect where things are headed. One anticipation is easy AR is traveling towards what is by and large called ‘marker free ‘ executings, which means the package can be much more flexible with regard to what it treats as a marker.
In this undertaking proposal, we introduce a stand-alone, plug-and-play type AR Pointer system to be used for Augmented E-Commerce applications. The proposed AR system is easy to utilize and marker-free, and therefore more all-purpose in applications. Alternatively of traditional tracking systems that require arduous installings, a little optical maser and a picture camera are used as a tracking unit in our system.
As it ‘s a new system and based on the same AR platform, so there is no demand to travel for more research on this system which can salvage clip, cost and can be introduced straight into the market and besides it ‘s a new engineering in which really few companies are seeking to present this construct into the market. By suggesting this construct it ‘s really easy to convert the board of managers. We can aim the retail clients which is a chief sector in every states economic system and besides more profitable market. So it ‘s really easy to travel to the clients.
The chief advantage with this proposal is that, as it ‘s a new engineering which about has most of the similarities with the old engineerings. So budget required for this will be really low compared to get downing some other theoretical accounts. The cost of this mainly depends on the figure of paradigms that we had used. The maximal cost for the implementing this engineering may run up to $ 100,000- $ 500,000. No new staff is besides required. We can go on with the same staff which ca n’t consequence the budget.
In this paper, we introduced a laser-projection based AR Pointer system and Augmented Ecommerce paradigm that combines web contents and AR engineerings. AR Pointer is a stand-alone, marker-free, and easy-to-use AR system that can be used in mundane E-Commerce life of untrained users. AR Pointer can be used to cover practical objects on the environments where marker installing is hard or impossible. Owing to its non-contact and intrusive nature, AR Pointer system can be besides used on the other side of a glass window or a show window. AR Pointer system is less influenced by ocular noise because the trailing is based on bright optical maser forms: it is less dependent on light conditions and less influenced by occlusions.
Inertial trackers can be integrated with AR Pointer system to avoid tracking failures when optical maser forms can non be right detected. An inertial detector can be besides used as a control device to revolve the practical objects in the augmented positions. AR Pointer system can be improved by enabling tracking on non-planar surfaces. If executed in real-time, 3D forms of the surface may be estimated for advanced interaction with the existent environments.
The budget required for implementing this undertaking is really less and besides it ‘s a new engineering in the market which can convey more clients towards the company. There is no extra staff required for this undertaking, We can travel with the old staff.
Although this article has addressed several of import issues in planing, there are still some of import issues that must be addressed in the hereafter development of an e-commerce system. Finally, we hope that the benefits of AR will be achieved without compromising privateness and comfort
User privateness has to be protected. The privateness issue arises when the retail merchants collect the ingestion activities and effort to foretell the consumer ‘s involvement based on her old shopping behavior. It is necessary to equilibrate the tradeoff between mechanization and privateness to run into the demands of both retail merchants and consumers. Consumers may be willing to give certain grade of their privateness in return for certain sensed value, and retail merchants decidedly should esteem the privateness of their clients. A batch of ongoing research plants are concerned of privateness and security of on-line e-commerce systems. The end of the initial development of this system, nevertheless, is to maximise the mechanization of the shopping experience and research the potency and the possible applications of augmentations and diminishments in the perceptual experience of a short shelf image. Hence the privateness issue is beyond of the range of this initial work and besides should be minimised in the execution of this construct.
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