Database Architecture For Mobile Data Tracking System Computer Science Essay

Abstract-As per the recent market surveys the nomadic endorsers reached 100 one million millions by this June 2010 in India. Mobile operator are besides increased, late several new operators have emerged all over India. SIM cards being brought for client convince at really low cost and even Mobiles at really inexpensive monetary values. The security of nomadic use been thrown to low degree. A endorser can utilize 'N ' figure of SIM cards from assorted operators in assorted Mobiles use in present system.

The IMEI figure of a Mobile is stored in operator 's database, if subscriber 's alteration to another operator in the same Mobile, the same IMEI figure is non hive awaying in current supplier 's database, because of deficiency in Mobile operator database centralized. In instance, if mobile is lost the endorser has no opportunity for lodging compliant with Mobile operator to track his Mobile and nomadic informations and besides he will be lose his nomadic IMEI figure. In this paper, we proposed intelligent database architecture will hold database synchronism of all the nomadic operators ' database.

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In this system, SIM card will get down working by synchronism along with hallmark of operator 's database and gets updated in both ways.

Cardinal words: SIM, IMEI, IMSI, HLR, VLR

I. Introduction

In the last several old ages, Personal Communications Systems ( PCS ) have been widely deployed in India. Breadth of service and ubiquitousness of Personal Communications Networks require enrich security to run into the demands of privateness, hallmark. In India mobile service suppliers are increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours as shown in table 1.

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Operators covered for India include: Reliance Communications Ltd. , Vodafone Essar Limited, Bharti Airtel Limited, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited ( BSNL ) , and Idea Cellular Limited TATA DoCoMo, Aircel [ 1 ] .

As per the recent market surveys the nomadic endorsers reached 100 one million millions by this June 2010 in India. Mobile operator are besides increased, late several new operators have emerged all over India ( Example Uninor, Vedeocon, TATA DoCoMo etc ) . SIM cards being brought for client convince at really low cost ( Rs.1/-per SIM card ) and even Mobiles at really inexpensive monetary values.

Indian Telecom


Entire telephone endorser base

621.28 M


52.74 %

Fixed-line user base

36.96 M

Wireless user base ( GSM+CDMA )

584.32 M

Monthly add-ons ( Wire line + Wireless )

20.31 M

Monthly add-ons ( Wire line )


Monthly add-ons ( Wireless )

20.31 M

Broadband endorsers

8.75 M

Table 1: Mobile Subscriber Statistics

1.1 IMEI Database

The GSM Association maintains a alone system known as the IMEI Database ( IMEI DB ) . The IMEI Database is a planetary cardinal database incorporating basic information on consecutive figure ( IMEI ) ranges of 1000000s of GSM and 3G devices that are in usage across the universe 's GSM webs [ 2 ] . The IMEI is a 15-digit figure that is used to place the device when it is used on a GSM Mobile phone web.

If your phone is lost or stolen, you may happen it hard to retrieve all the contact inside informations you had stored in your phone and SIM card. In this paper, the proposed intelligent synchronized database system is to recover the inside informations easy. You can happen the IMEI figure of your phone by come ining '* # 06 # ' on the phone 's keyboard.

1.2 Subscriber Identity Module

SIM cards firmly store the service-subscriber key ( IMSI ) used to place a endorser. The SIM card allows users to alter phones by merely taking the SIM card from one Mobile phone and infixing it into another nomadic phone. SIM cards shop web specific information used to authenticate and place endorsers on the web, the most of import of these are the Mobile Number, IMSI, Authentication Key ( Ki ) , Local Area Identity, Operator-Specific Emergency figure, Service Provider Name, Service Dialing Number and Value Added Service.

Exists, provides broad encoding capablenesss to SIM card:

e.g. Public Key Infrastructure, extensile Authentication and normal SIM hallmark. The SIM card can provide web hallmark services.

This solution extends the possible usage of the GSM webs hallmark for radio webs. A possible classification of services [ 3 ] is shown on figure1.

The basic degree, what we call Nice to cognize is designed to supply adequate information for personalization services and with the aid of the SIM card, the user can take seamless hallmark.

The Middle Level, Need to cognize provides a higher degree of cognition about the users individuality therefore enabling entree to extra characteristics. Others will necessitate SIM plus an extra cognition based hallmark.

The 3rd degree, Have a know, integrates the all hallmark algorithms.

For giving better consequence, in this paper, we propose intelligent database architectures and the Data Synchronization for all the service suppliers will convey benefits to all the cardinal participants in the nomadic industry. As the figure of different suppliers to increase, so we can pull off troubles of their full database and this will be increase the productiveness of service suppliers.


Antisocial elements are utilizing Mobiles for their activities, the Mobiles are bought from assorted sellers and by utilizing bogus identify proofs they are acquiring SIM cards from assorted suppliers, the proposed system will verify for endorser individuality for both nomadic and SIM. It is non mandatory that a Mobile is purchased on the same name as SIM card, but enforces the jurisprudence and regulation, and even the proposed system besides suggests that when a Mobile is transferred to some other individual its transportation certifications besides to be obtained, as the other can lose utilize the nomadic taking its original proprietor to fall into problem. For illustration, if I got a auto in 2009 and sold it to some other individual in 2010 I need to reassign the vehicle on the name of the individual who sought to purchase my auto, if I did non make that in average clip, and the individual who has bought auto from me used the auto for some anti societal activities and been caught to patrol, the concluding problem is traveling to be faced by me as the auto is non yet transferred to that individual.

Mobile and SIM miss use can easy filtered with the proposed system. The nomadic sellers are besides advised to follow some instructions while a new Mobile is sold. The purchaser 's information has to be collected like in the instance of SIM card. Obviously the purchaser will acquire a new SIM on his/her name merely. The proposed system will ever look into for the SIM database for user profile and with the aid of nomadic IMEI figure, the nomadic individuality is besides known.

In instance if the SIM is lost or damaged, the new SIM with same figure being brought from same supplier will automatically recover IMEI Numberss from its suppliers database.


In this paper, we suggesting to incorporate the all service suppliers database as shown in figure 2.

The proposed system hereby is immense, multidimensional, complex, dynamic and correlate database, monolithic information transmittal is limited by web transmittal velocity, the storage capacity and bandwidth.

The proposed system will hold database synchronism of all nomadic operators ' databases and SIM card holding capacity of hive awaying 'N ' different IMEI Numberss of Mobiles where the SIM card is being placed. The SIM card will get down working by synchronising with operator 's database and gets updated in both ways.

The proposed intelligent synchronized database working is as follows.

3.1 Change Detection

In Mobile networks the database of one operator will be separately working, no centralised database among operators is established so far. If a endorser switches from one web supplier to another, hallmark of the endorser is required and will take same procedure as old.

The solution can be easy derived by synchronising all operators database to individual point of contact database, where the endorser 's information can be easy transmitted from one to another.

It is going really indispensable in today 's environment like endorsers information is decentralized among different operators. No proper cogent evidence of a individual endorser holding different SIM cards from several operators. Even a endorser can hold several Mobiles and will be normally exchanging between Mobiles utilizing different operators SIM cards. The synchronism is the best method of holding a centralised database connected to single operator 's database.

The centralised database construct is concentrated on updating and synchronising some portion of Subscriber 's and Mobile information with all the supplier 's single databases. Like hive awaying IMEI Numberss of Mobile in centralised database with the aid of SIM card placed in the Mobile. When subscriber switches from one operator to another, the IMEI figure helps in placing the bing endorser information and will inform to the switched operator 's database.

3.1.1 Cardinal database construct

Without a centralised database to hive away the informations, you need some manner of application to speak to each other. The centralised database will hold connexions with single operator 's database and is exposed to each other all of the clip. The common database application at cardinal database will be brought frontward to speak to each other of single databases. A cardinal database supplying the individual beginning of truth makes synchronising the information a batch easier.

The synchronism of informations demands to be executed often in a twenty-four hours. Executing synchronism per twenty-four hours will hold to free certain updated information like VLR places in a user rolling environment, alteration in database of SIM card like contact Numberss, etc.

3.2 Data Transmission

The update information units are little in size so that it can be easy synchronized with database every clip without devouring much clip. If the units are excessively little, and excessively many are changed at one time, the synchronism can take everlastingly. The reference book will hold merely a fixed figure of contacts and SIM, IMEI and other Numbers. When the database of SIM is modified a simple Boolean flag will raise and will advise the cardinal database waiter to acquire synchronized. If the database is modified in outside operator 's application, first it gets informed to cardinal database, which intern gets modified by the other operators SIM database.

3.2.1 Data Transmission individually

The sum of informations need to be synchronized will be analyzed foremost, so it will be stored at nearest HLR database in regular clip intervals, establishing on the web burden and traffic the HLR will so gets synchronized with cardinal waiter. If it seems that web connexion is undependable to acquire synchronism complete, each ball of informations instead than whole will be copied to cardinal waiter. When the synchronism gets completed the cardinal waiter will look into the sum of informations need to synchronise and amount synchronized, if both are same so the procedure ended successfully.

3.2 2 The alterations are submitted all at one time

The web connexion some times seems to be really dependable and some times non and even may be dropped in center, even the entire sum of informations need to be synchronized in non big, each unit of that information when synchronized with cardinal database waiter will be advantageous and dependable. As the proposed system architecture defines the sum of informations stored in the SIM card and cardinal waiter is really less, so data when modified will acquire synchronized with cardinal waiter by unit wise. There is ever the fright of informations larceny. Personally, if there is a demand for a secure transmittal, burrowing the communicating over SSH will work out the solution.

3.3 Change Control

The procedure of synchronising one operator 's database with cardinal waiter starts and ends with Boolean values 0 and 1. When database synchronism starts with one operator 's database its phase will be set to 1, hence it is non possible to change the information at the other terminal at the same clip.

We are presenting the construct of unifying informations with the aid of cardinal database waiter. Establishing on the petition made by the user the meeting of informations happens on one manner. The two communications may do informations hits which will take to informations loss.

3.4 Update Confirmation

If the application uses some signifier of checksum to find what information has changed, so it may necessitate to bespeak each of these checksums from the other terminal of the synchronism. If there are a batch of possible units, this could be a big sum of informations in and of itself.

Remember that the checksum or alteration day of the month demands to be compared even if the information has non changed to corroborate that it has non changed. If the application has complete control over the informations, so a Boolean alteration flag along with a alteration day of the month can travel a long manner in cut downing the denseness of this communicating.

3.5 Benefits to Mobile Operators

For nomadic operators, the major benefit of Data Synchronization is that it can increase employee productiveness by giving staff existent clip entree to contacts and all other SIM informations. Operators are in a cardinal place to profit by offering such as service for their endorsers and corporate clients. This system will assist to authenticate and recover the user profiles.

The above stairss are the work done based on fuzzed logic postulations and regulations. By utilizing Fuzzy database we can recover the informations easy from cardinal waiter. It is more flexible than traditional database querying.


Fuzzy questions are given more flexibleness to entree and shop informations in synchronised database for all the service suppliers. In proposed system, fuzzed database querying is an automatic rectification of mistakes while reassigning SIM cards from one Mobile to another and even hive awaying, retrieval of the information from the synchronized database by several users and operators often. It besides system supports avoiding the empty responses and a qualitative differentiation among the replies. The proposed system will besides act as human and authenticate the system while users are adding new profiles to the database. Here, we are demoing the basic operations of such system [ 8 ] [ 9 ] i.e. fuzzed databases questions for shop and recovering the information.


& lt ; query & gt ; : =SELECT & lt ; list of Fieldss & gt ; FROM & lt ; List of tabular arraies & gt ; WHERE & lt ; fuzzy quantifier & gt ;

& lt ; sequence of subconditions & gt ; ; & lt ; sequence of subconditions & gt ; : := & lt ; subcondition & gt ; | & lt ; subcondition & gt ; OR & lt ; sequence of subconditions & gt ; & lt ; subcondition & gt ; : := & lt ; fuzzy quantifier & gt ; & lt ; of import coefficient & gt ; & lt ; sequence of atomic conditions & gt ; & lt ; sequence of atomic conditions & gt ; : := & lt ; atomic status & gt ; | & lt ; atomic status & gt ; AND & lt ; sequence of atomic conditions & gt ; & lt ; atomic status & gt ; : := & lt ; attribute & gt ; = & lt ; fuzzy value & gt ; | & lt ; attribute & gt ; & lt ; fuzzed relation & gt ; & lt ; attribute & gt ; | & lt ; attribute & gt ; & lt ; fuzzed relation & gt ; & lt ; figure & gt ; |

& lt ; other signifiers obeying entree sentence structure & gt ;

In general, the simple block of SQL in fuzzed database is written as:

SELECT & lt ; n or t & gt ; & lt ; attribute & gt ; FROM & lt ; relation & gt ; WHERE & lt ; fuzzy status & gt ;

where, the user should be able to take the end product either by stipulating the figure N of coveted responses or a threshold tN” [ 0, 1 ] for t-cut of fuzzed relation.


In this paper, Architecture contains three entities [ 4 ] [ 5 ] : a nomadic Subscriber, Visiting Location Register ( VLR ) and Home Location Register ( HLR ) . Mallik 's SIM card contains a secret hallmark cardinal KM and alone `` International Mobile Subscribers Identity '' and A3 is symmetric encoding algorithm is used. The stairss to be follow as shown in figure3.

aˆzhMobile Equipment starts up ; it obtains the IMSI from the SIM card, and passes this to the Mobile operator bespeaking entree and hallmark. The Mobile Equipment may hold to go through a PIN to the SIM card before the SIM card will uncover this information.

. The Operator web searches its database for the entrance IMSI and its associated KM

. The operator 's web so generates a Random Number ( RAND ) and marks it with the KM associated with the IMSI, calculating another figure known as singed Response ( SRES_1 ) .

aˆzhThe operator web so sends the RAND to the Mobile Equipment, which passes it to the SIM card. The SIM card marks it with its KM, bring forthing SRES_2 which it gives to the Mobile Equipment along with encoding cardinal K C. The Mobile equipment base on ballss SRES_2 on to the operator web.

aˆzhThe operator web so compares its computed SRES_1 with computed SRES_2 that the nomadic equipment returned. If the two Numberss match the SIM authenticated and the Mobile Equipment is granted entree to the operators ' web. KC is used to code all farther communications between the Mobile Equipment and the web.

Mobile User





Figure3: SIM hallmark utilizing IMSI

5.1 Simulation on Intelligent Authentication

Authentication is a basis in the security of any system. Authentication provides confidence for the claimed or detected individuality of an entity in the system, i.e. it verifies weather the designation of this entity correct. The traditional hallmark methods require much user interaction in the signifier of manual logins, logout and file permissions. We introduce the fuzzy logic in this mechanism and it will work every bit intelligently. The proposed intelligent hallmark mechanism is supplying more flexibleness and hardiness, customizability and scalability.




Figure 5: Intelligent Authentication procedure

The Proposed intelligent Authentication Handling Process is shown in Figure5.

The Inference Engine performs two sorts of undertakings. First it gives a degree of assurance when a individual authenticates himself. It makes user of the hallmark policies every bit good as contextual information to delegate the assurance degree. Second, it evaluates questions from applications about weather a certain entity is allowed to entree a certain resources. It makes user of applications specific entree control policies.

5.2 Fuzzy Logic & A ; Fuzzy representation

5.2.1 Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy Logic provides a simple manner to get at a definite decision based upon vague, equivocal, imprecise, noisy, or losing input information.

Fuzzy set theory provides a formal mathematical model for a systematic of fuzzed informations. A fuzzed subset A of X is defined as:

A = { ( ma ( x ) /x |x N” X } and mA ( ten )

[ 0, 1 ] where ma ( x ) is the rank map

5.2.2 Fuzzy Representation for Authentication system

A defect of utilizing chance is that specific values need to be devised and given to the specific events in the system. Fuzzy Logic overcomes portion of this job by supplying a set and a grade of rank in that peculiar set. Fuzzy logic is a cardinal attack in state of affairss where one wants to do a passage from a really precise but unsure proposition to less precise but purely true proposition.

In order to cipher net assurance when multiple hallmark methods are used, without delegating precise chance values, fuzzed sets can be defined for the assorted possible assurance degrees. We define a fuzzy set to denominate the grade of assurance in hallmark mechanism.

For illustration, we assume the grade of assurance is represented in a graduated table with the undermentioned classs:

{ Very Low, low, medium, high, really high }

This is a fuzzed set is depicted in Figure 6.

Degree of Assurance


We utilize fuzzed logic to supply finger-grain representation of assurance in an identified or attested entity.

For the determination approximative value a individual regulation has the undermentioned signifier:

`` if X if Ci so Y is Sj '' where Ci and Sj are fuzzed sets over X an Y severally.

Rules for constructing assurance based on devices and mechanism user for hallmark can specify in the above format. Given n regulations, R1 to Rn, and an observation A, ideally we would wish to reason to a fuzzy set, and from at that place seek to acquire a sharp value:

( R1, R2, R3.. , Rn ; A )


Where B is the fuzzed set stand foring the decision.

Fuzzy Logic is acting gently and identifies all type certifications for hallmark in the system.

5.2.3 Advantages of the proposed Authentication technique

This technique is extremely efficient due to intelligence used and no farther information has to be supplied the endorser ( MS ) while doing a call. The features of this hallmark strategy are.

1 ) This nomadic endorser every bit good as web hallmark technique enjoys the advantages of fuzzed theory, so it is an alone one.

2 ) Fuzzy Logic is efficaciously employed to the waiter and subsequently it takes portion to authenticate right endorser every bit good as web.

3 ) Authenticity is decided by the endorsers speaking features and distance of the endorsers from the base station or the web.

4 ) Flexible simple fuzzed operations are performed on fuzzy set for hallmark determination.

5 ) This hallmark technique ensures consequence with in a existent clip footing.


In this paper, we have analyzed the proper hallmark for tracking the nomadic system for GSM rolling users. We have proposed intelligent synchronised database architecture for cut downing the cost of nomadic informations tracking while we replace SIMs from one Mobile to another Mobile and other informations. This strategy is helped for more flexible querying and hive awaying precise informations into database. In our hereafter work, we will distribute out this technique for existent clip nomadic informations bases.

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Database Architecture For Mobile Data Tracking System Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from

Database Architecture For Mobile Data Tracking System Computer Science Essay
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