Assignment. Sustainable Tourism Essay
Assignment. Sustainable Tourism
1. Relevance and appropriateness of title & Addressing posed assessment topic/task 2. Sound, logical, clearly developed and well supported argument
3. Clear essay structure (intro, body, conclusion; paragraph structure) & Adherence to good academic writing practice (presentation, grammar, clarity of expression) 4. Depth and breadth of research & Analysis, evaluation and integration of research 5. Referencing (minimum of 8 academic references; in-text citations and quoting; consistency of referencing style; construction of reference list)
Choose one (1) of six topics:
Sustainable tourism and… 1. …climate change 2. …protected areas 3. …poverty alleviation 4. …mining 5. …ecotourism 6. …, cross-cultural understanding & peace
Topic 1 – ST & climate change
Many authors argue that tourism is a major contributor to climate change, particularly through its travel/transport component. As the consequences of climate change are starting to influence government policies (e.g. carbon tax) and consumer behaviour (i.e. through increased consumer awareness), explore the future of tourism and how it may change (or not) over the next 20 years. Draw on examples from government policy, travel behaviour data, climate change studies and/or tourism and sustainability debates to support your case.
Topic 1 – support materials
• • • • • • • • Unit topic 6 materials Unit topic 3 reading – What if governments banned tourism? Sustainable Tourism CRC reports: http://www.crctourism.com.au/BookShop/SearchResult.aspx?k=climate%20change CSIRO resources: http://www.csiro.au/Outcomes/Climate/Understanding.aspx Can ST include flying? Watch the debate: http://vls.uclan.ac.uk/play.aspx?videoid=5903 ABC TV series on climate change: http://www.abc.net.au/tv/changeyourmind/characters/ News report on some impacts: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-05-14/heatwavesbushfires-predicted-to-hammer-nsw/4009006 Official government website on Carbon Tax: http://www.cleanenergyfuture.gov.au/
Topic 2 – ST & protected areas
About 10-15 percent of the earth’s surface is in designated protected areas, with the primary focus on biodiversity conservation. However, despite protection, “[t]he loss of biodiversity is still accelerating within and beyond the boundaries of protected areas” (Bushell & Eagles 2007, p. 1). Nelson Mandela, in his opening speech at the 5th World Parks Congress in
Durban argued that “It is only through alliances and partnerships that Protected Areas can be made relevant to the needs of society.” In this context, critically review tourism’s contribution to biodiversity conservation and explore opportunities for alliances between protected areas and tourism to foster relevance of protected areas to local communities and the broader society. Use examples from around the world to illustrate your argument.
Topic 2 – support materials
• • • • Materials from Unit topic 7 World database on protected areas: www.wdpa.org Tourism and Protected Areas : Benefits Beyond Boundaries / Paul F. J. Eagles, Robyn Bushell Wallingford:CAB International, 2007: http://www.cabi.org.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFH ier&BookID=342 “Arguments for Protected Areas : Multiple Benefits for Conservation and Use”. You can access the book using this link: http://scu.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=517175 Tourism potentials for financing protected areas: Annals of Tourism Research, 2000, Vol.27(3), pp.590-610 http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031 Protected areas, poverty and conflicts:A livelihood case study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania: A livelihood case study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics, 2012, Vol.21, pp.2031: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031
• • •
Topic 3 – ST & poverty alleviation
Discuss the role of tourism in reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Critically examine models such as pro-poor tourism or volunteer tourism and draw on international examples and case studies in your argument.
Topic 3 – support materials
• • • • • • • http://www.propoortourism.org.uk/ http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/ Make Poverty History http://www.makepovertyhistory.com.au/ Micah Challenge & Millenium
Development Goals http://www.micahchallenge.org.au/mdg UN website on MDGs http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ http://www.miniature-earth.com/ Global Poverty Project http://www.globalpovertyproject.com/pages/about_us & http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1mp0t0qc80
Topic 4 – ST & mining
With the rapid expansion of natural resource extraction industries such as mining and oil and gas operations in Australia, they are increasingly encroaching on areas used for nature-based tourism. For example, the expansion of Gladstone Port in Queensland is threatening the integrity of the Great Barrier Reef; and mining and gas projects along the Kimberley Coast in Western Australia are likely to negatively affect the current tourism experience in this area. Similarly, the continuation of old-growth logging in Tasmania may reduce opportunities for nonextractive economic opportunities such as ecotourism. In a political and economic environment where governments currently see themselves as highly dependent on the short term revenues from natural resource extraction industries, the needs of the tourism industry may be seen as secondary. Explore avenues for tourism to strengthen its voice and image as a more sustainable alternative and to ensure that the strategic needs of the tourism industry are recognised and being considered in the political arena.
Topic 4 – support materials
• • Great Barrier Reef – http://youtu.be/tYd5_u6ehlA Kimberley – http://www.wilderness.org.au/campaigns/kimberley/kimberley-tourism-report-launch-aug31st-2010 & the report http://www.wilderness.org.au/pdf/Kimberley_WhaleCoast_Report.pdf
Topic 5 – Ecotourism
Over the last two decades, ‘ecotourism’ has come under some scrutiny and has been subject to criticisms. Explore the concept of ecotourism (1) as defined in theory and (2) as applied in practice and outline (3) what you consider ecotourism to be. Through research, clearly identify key arguments by experts and practitioners who are pro ecotourism and arguments by experts and practitioners who are against ecotourism and support their positions
with examples and references. Reflect on your personal position and critically examine the pro and con views against your position.
Topic 5 – support materials
• • • Journal of Ecotourism – http://www.multilingual-matters.net.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/jet/default.htm Journal of Sustainable Tourism – http://www.multilingual-matters.net.ezproxy.scu.edu.au/jost/default.htm Unit topic 3 & 8 in particular & unit materials throughout
Topic 6 – ST & cross-cultural undersanding
The social and cultural dimensions of tourism sustainability have gained increasing attention over recent years in attempts to more equally balance and consider the economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. For example, research is exploring ways of capturing and monitoring the less tangible impacts of tourism activities particularly in cross-cultural contexts, such as the effects on local Aboriginal communities of tourists accessing Aboriginal lands without Traditional Owner permission. In this context, explore and critically examine arguments by tourism scholars who promote tourism as a means for promoting peace and cross-cultural understanding. Draw on examples from the literature and reflect on your own experiences as a tourist to illustrate your arguments.
Topic 6 – support materials
• International Institute for Peace Through Tourism – http://www.iipt.org/ • Alternative Tourism Group – http://www.atg.ps/index.php?page=1177263170.1198159598.1208362704 • Authors such as Freya Higgins-Desbiolles: – – – Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2010) In the eye of the beholder? Tourism and the activist academic. In P. Burns et al. (Eds.) Tourism and visual culture: Vol 1 theories and concepts (pp. 98-106). Wallingford: CABI. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. & Blanchard, L. (2010) Challenging peace through tourism: Placing tourism in the context of human rights, justice & peace. In O. Moufakkir & I. Kelly (Eds.) Tourism Progress and Peace (pp. 35-47). Wallingford: CABI. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2009) International Solidarity Movement: A case study in volunte