Within the English parlance there exists a axiom that ‘knowledge is power ‘ – this statement is substantiated by the fact that throughout recorded history civilizations have placed great importance upon acquisition and the acquisition of cognition.
However, this brings forth a more of import inquiry – how in world was this knowledge-base acquired. Basically, the most efficacious agencies in continuing this cognition was composing. This presents a job of its ain – the innovation of alphabets and linguistic communications day of the months back around 5000 old ages with the Sumerian cuneiform being considered the oldest known linguistic communication.
For the most of history people relied on unwritten transmittal. However, orality is capable to alter and is susceptible to change with far greater easiness than composing and later composing holds far greater value, particularly within the modern context. Languages have accordingly evolved ( albeit borrowing from other linguistic communications ) to identifiable and recognized systems of sounds and grammatical forms, and significantly assorted books.
English in today ‘s society is deemed lingua franca and has become the preferable linguistic communication of commercialism every bit good as academe. However, most people in the UK ( due to the system of instruction ) learn either Gallic or German as a subordinate linguistic communication to some extent. These linguistic communications present troubles of grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary and pronunciation foremost, but non with the book – as all employ the ‘Latin ‘ alphabet.
However, there is an addition in people larning other linguistic communications ( besides the aforesaid ) like Arabic. This presents the pupil ab iniitio with a greater challenge – that of larning an wholly new book. Besides, Arabic is alone in that it behaves as a linguistic communication both as an Abjad ( a consonant based Alphabet that usually merely represents consonants ) and as a standard alphabet. Therefore, an novice must pass clip
familiarizing themselves with the alphabet before plunging farther into the linguistic communication. Arabic presents another job, its book is non inactive like English – i.e. the characters remain a changeless form graphological form irrespective of their place in a word – Arabic, is unstable, the letters readily change their visual aspect depending on where they appear in a word, each Arabic missive posses an initial, median and concluding signifier, every bit good as a base entirely signifier. Recently, the democratization of computing machines ( and engineering at big ) particularly in the Western universe has resulted in a great addiction upon cognizing how to utilize them and in conveying information to the multitudes through them. E-learning is going progressively popular – particularly with greater entree to the cyberspace. Professor Diana Laurillard re-affirmed the significance of e-learning when she said “no sane individual can state that e-learning is non essential.” Rather, e-learning is “the most exciting thing to hold come our manner since the innovation of writing” . The effectivity of E-Learning is farther underscored with the increased popularity of programmes like Rosetta Stone and Pimslow – designed to assist learn linguistic communications efficiently and expeditiously.
The above being considered the purpose of this undertaking is to set about the development of such an e-learning programme for the Arabic Language. The undertaking will take to learn how to compose and read the linguistic communication. To make this the latest e-learning techniques will be employed in peculiar to help a novice in the right manner to read and compose assorted missive signifiers and diacritical Markss ( points and elan ‘s above and below letters that influence the corresponding letters sound ) . The undertaking aims to assist novices to derive a greater assurance in larning to read Arabic.
1.1 Purposes and Aims
The purposes and aims of this undertaking is to research into several cardinal countries to develop an effectual e-learning system and measure if the techniques implemented in the system were effectual.
The cardinal countries to be researched are:
• Computer aided linguistic communication acquisition
• The Arabic linguistic communication
• Software development tools
In an e-learning environment if an“integrative” larning attack is implemented over a “behaviourist” acquisition attack so the terminal user will profit more from the acquisition experience through utilizing the e-learning application.
1.2 Report Structure
1. Introduction, briefly outlines the context and country the undertaking is concerned with besides touching on the purposes and aims of the undertaking and a brief hypothesis.
2. Research, contains the literature reappraisal supplying an in depth expression at the definition and development of e-learning and computing machine aided linguistic communication acquisition. Furthermore the Arabic book is discussed as a means to understand how it will be taught utilizing e-learning and CALL. The demand analysis is besides shown here looking into bing systems and interviews to derive indispensable cognition on how the undertaking should be implemented. And eventually a expression into what tools are available to develop the proposed system.
3. Design, contains the pilot survey of the undertaking and its experimental design what was learnt from set abouting the pilot survey and the concluding development of the system before it was used for garnering consequences.
4. Testing and Results, looks at the trial scheme implemented, what consequences were gathered after the testing had taken topographic point and what findings could be drawn after measuring the consequences.
5. Decision, looks at the findings from the undertaking and what decisions can be drawn from them and how this relates back to the hypothesis.
2.1 Literature Review
2.1.1 E Learning
The term e-learning can mention to the procedure of larning through engineering such as a personal computing machine or the cyberspace [ Poulin R ] . However the term e-learning can be loosely defined due to the nature of technological development and the velocity at which this is happening [ Meyers, Jeremy ] and the stuffs that are used in the elearning procedure.
Furthermore E-learning is non merely going progressively common and popular because of technological promotions but because of the handiness of personal computing machines to the mean family [ BBC News, 2002 ] . Besides consideration must be given to the addition in usage of e-learning within educational establishments like universities for illustration to distance pupils and administrations to develop employees [ BCS News 1 ] . Other grounds as to why e-learning has become widespread are the great advantages it presents over traditional face-to-face acquisition. Although this point raised is problematic e-learning does hold some clear advantages over face-to-face acquisition such as:
• The monetary value an administration or educational establishment has to pay to implement an e-learning system which can be used by a big sum of users is well cheaper than using instructors or trainers to learn pupils or develop employees.
• Most people have entree to computing machines and the cyberspace so the issue of whether or non the e-learning system can be accessed is non of high concern.
• The one straight profiting from the e-learning system saves money as the acquisition can take topographic point in the comfort of their ain place, such is the instance with distance scholars at universities.
• The broad scope of scholar types that the e-learning system can accommodate to assist maintain users focused on the content and heighten the acquisition experience. [ BCS News 2 ]
• E-leaning systems are flexible, users can larn at their ain gait in their ain clip.
2.1.2 Computer Assisted Language Learning
To hold a full apprehension of CALL1 it would be wise to look at it ‘s history and development from when it began to present twenty-four hours. CALL has been developing over the past 40 old ages and has been through three specific phases [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . The first phase of CALL, viz. “Behaviouristic CALL” , was developed in the 1950 ‘s and subsequently implemented in the 1960 ‘s. It was built on the popular theories of larning at that clip. These theories included thoughts that larning stuffs were to be repeated to be effectual, the computing machine was ideal for executing this undertaking and that the user can travel at their ain gait as each user would hold their ain computing machine. Such learning methods were known as “drill and practice” due to the nature of the system and it ‘s low degree of interactivity with the user [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
The 2nd phase of CALL known as “Communicative CALL” like the first phase was based on popular larning theories at the clip it was developed and used in the 1970- 80 ‘s [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . This phase was concerned with go forthing behind what were seen as uneffective techniques in behavioristic CALL and implement a more synergistic system that would prosecute the user [ Stevens V, 1989 ] .
The 3rd and current phase of CALL known as “Integrative CALL” is built on some recent cardinal technological promotions that occurred in the last 20 old ages. These technological promotions are digital multimedia and the cyberspace [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
Digital multimedia refers to a individual interface or computing machine plan that is built up from a combination of two or more media [ Chapman, 2000 ] . In utilizing digital multimedia and CALL approach many effectual e-learning systems have been developed. However the applications that are to the full synergistic are few due to the bulk being developed missing a strong pedagogical foundation [ Warschauer M,
1996 ] .
The cyberspace is a big aggregation of interrelated computing machine webs in communicating with one another via a common protocol [ Coulouris et Al, 2001 ] . Sing the cyberspace and development of integrative CALL 1 can detect that the cyberspace provides a rich resource to the content that is being taught from the universe broad web. Furthermore it allows pupils and instructors likewise utilizing integrative CALL developed systems to hold one-to-one or one-to-many contact in existent clip. This helps coaction of undertakings and no bound to the location of the user [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
1 Computer Assisted Language Learning will be abbreviated to Name throughout the remainder of this study. Although digital multimedia has been restricted to utilize on computing machines via CD-ROM in the past looking into recent developments in the universe broad web and more specifically web 2.0 we find this is no longer the instance and that digital multimedia is of all time present on the universe broad web via the cyberspace [ O’Reilly, 2005 ] . What this means for intergrative CALL is that the web is no longer a text-based medium which was the instance when this phase of CALL began [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . Rather synergistic and integrative environments can be developed to increase the efficiency of e-learning systems via the web gaining the full potency of intergrative CALL [ Robinsonova N, 2008 ] .
2.1.3 Learning and Memory
An of import portion of planing an e-learning system is research different types of scholars and understanding how the human head, more specifically memory plants. Upon understanding these two of import countries the mark audience of the proposed elearning system will be easier to understand and specific techniques can be implemented in the e-learning system. Looking at the Honey and Mumford theoretical account where four distinguishable types of scholars were identified these were: militant, reflectors, theoreticians and pragmatists [ Honey, P. & A ; Mumford, A. 1982 ] .
• Activist scholars were described as being most effectual when they experienced new challenges and undertakings. This was the instance particularly in undertakings that were of a short span and involved job work outing and teamwork.
• Reflectors learnt the best in state of affairss where they were able to detect the undertaking at manus instead than covering with it instantly. For illustration they would hold clip to believe about how they would near the undertaking before they initiated any action. They besides favour environments where they can reexamine their acquisition and there is small to no force per unit area on them.
• Theorists learnt more expeditiously when they are presented a undertaking in which they can analyze what is given to them which may be portion of a larger theoretical account or construct. Furthermore state of affairss where they can research interrelatednesss between what they have found from their analysis were favorable.
• Pragmatists learnt best from state of affairss that present an expressed nexus in the undertaking at manus and a existent life job. They prefer to move on what they have learnt when the chance would show itself.
Long Term Memory
The Arabic Language
• Basic debut and history of linguistic communication and book
• Why is Arabic relevant and benefits of larning
• Arabic and Computers
2.2 Requirement Analysis
Interview with Arabic instructor
-How the interview would be conducted
-What information I wanted from the interviews
-What information I got from the interview Arabic pupil
-How the interview would be conducted
-What information I wanted from the interviews
-What information I got from the interview
2.2.2 Execution tools
Research into what possible tools could be used to develop the e-learning system
-Web Based ( ASP, Jquery, HTML5, CSS3 )
Chosen solution and why
2.1.6 Existing Systems
Evaluation of bing e-learning systems
Use instance diagrams
3.1 Pilot Study
• Experimental design
• Aims of pilot survey
• Structure of pilot survey
• Screen shootings of pilot survey
• How pilot survey was conducted
• Consequences from pilot and comparing to take
• Decisions from consequences of pilot
• How does that alter the development of the system, need to re-scope?
4 Testing and Results
4.1 Test Plan
[ BBC News, 2002 ]
“One billion computing machines sold bbc news” . At: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2077986.stm & gt ;
[ BCS News 1 ] “E-learning market to turn in 2010 January” . At: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bcs.org/server.php? show=conWebDoc.34184 & gt ;
[ BCS News 2 ] “Study shows value of e-learning” . At: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bcs.org/server.php? show=conWebDoc.33364 & gt ; [ Chapman, 2000 ]
Chapman N and Chapman J. ( 2000 ) “Digital Multimedia” . Chichester: John Wiley & A ; Sons. pp. 12 [ Coulouris et Al, 2001 ]
Coulouris G, Dollimore and Kindberg T. ( 2001 ) “Distributed Systems Concepts and Design” . Pearson Education Limited. Pp 3-4 [ Honey, P. & A ; Mumford, A. 1982 ]
Honey, P. & A ; Mumford, A. ( 1982 ) . “Manual of Learning Styles” . London: P Honey [ Meyers, Jeremy ] “ A Short History of the Computer ” . At: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.softlord.com/comp/ & gt ;
[ O’Reilly, 2005 ] O’Reilly ( 2005 ) “What is web 2.0” . online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html? page=1 [ Poulin R ] “Distance Learning in Higher Education – Related Footings and
Concepts, Goals of Distance Learning, Technologies Used in Distance Learning” . At: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1917/Distance-Learning-in-Higher-Education.html & gt ;
[ Robinsonova N, 2008 ] Robinsonova N. ( 2008 ) . “Learning a linguistic communication the web 2.0 way” . At: hypertext transfer protocol: //eu.techcrunch.com/2008/08/25/learning-a-language-the-web-20-way/
[ Stevens V, 1989 ] Stevens V. ( ed. ) ( 1989 ) “ A way for Call: from behaviouristic to humanistic courseware ” . In Pennington M. ( ed. ) , Teaching linguistic communications with computing machines: the province of the art, La Jolla, CA: Athelstan: 31-43.
[ Warschauer M, 1996 ] Warschauer M. ( 1996 ) “ Computer Assisted Language Learning: an Introduction ” . In Fotos S. ( ed. ) Multimedia linguistic communication instruction, Tokyo: Logos International: 3-20. Dominic Jones 10
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Arabic e-learning website. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/arabic-e-learning-website-new-essay