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All over the universe, rapid industrial development of metropolitan metropoliss have ever resulted in a growing in population and besides in the general addition of the size of municipal solid waste generated. The direction of municipal solid waste, if non handled decently, will take to assorted jobs now and in the hereafter. Developed states in the universe have, to a big extent succeeded in managing their waste utilizing assorted rules and methods. From suited aggregation methods to technologically advanced disposal methods, they have made certain that municipal solid waste has been efficaciously controlled in their metropoliss.
Unfortunately, the same can non be said about other developing states of the universe. Developing states such as Nigeria are still combating with municipal solid waste direction. As a direct consequence of the oil roar, Port Harcourt metropolis, the capital of Rivers State, Nigeria ( which is the instance survey of this research work ) has experienced a major rural- urban migration. The population has about tripled over the old ages.
This has, in bend, led to a monolithic addition in the sheer volume of solid waste generated within the city..
Approximately 168,201 metric tons of solid waste are produced in the metropolis of Port Harcourt every twelvemonth and waste disposal has non been efficaciously handled. Residents resort to indiscriminate discarding of their waste at every given chance The most common agencies of waste disposal in the metropolis by the populace are chiefly by dumping the garbage by the route, firing the garbage in the unfastened air in their compounds, littering it openly on street corners and besides dumping them in rivers and watercourses and drainage systems.
These methods of waste disposal contribute greatly to the debasement of the environment in so many ways. However, really small is done to recycle and recycle the solid waste generated. Research shows that a immense per centum of the public do non recycle and recycle their wastes which indicates that the awareness degree of the populace about reuse and recycling of waste in Port Harcourt metropolis is really low and offers a batch of chance for betterment.
This survey hence investigates the grounds why proper waste disposal methods are neglected by occupants of Port Harcourt. It besides seeks to detect why the method of Reuse and Recycle of waste is non acquiring the consciousness and Government support it greatly deserves. Recommendations were made about schemes that will let the authorities and stakeholders involved to progress on modern methods of waste Reuse and Recycling as a nucleus facet of municipal solid waste direction in the metropolis. Through the usage of informations collated via questionnaires, it was gathered that a bulk of respondents agree that reuse and recycling of waste can positively impact the environment, create gross and besides employment chances. It reconnoitres the nexus between reuse and recycling of solid waste as a means to make gross and to finally accomplish sustainable development in the hereafter.
Harmonizing to Shah ( 2000 ) , solid waste is defined as any stuff that is unwanted or thrown off. The general community positions waste as something worthless that should be destroyed or thrown off. As such, proper disposal of waste has constituted immense disposal jobs. Peoples normally dump their family solid waste on the route side, unapproved garbage dumps and illegal landfills. This has brought about untold environmental pollution every bit good as major reverses in social development ( Mbata 2010 ) . Waste in general is a menace to the environment, because of its negative environmental impacts that result from littering, dumping of wastes illicitly, and nursery gas emanations ( Hosetti 2006 ) . Waste contaminates ground H2O and can do serious wellness jeopardies if non handled and managed decently.
In developing states like Nigeria and so Africa in general, industrial development has enhanced the jobs of rapid urbanisation. In Nigeria today, solid waste direction is one of the principal jobs faced by the province and local authorities governments in Nigeria. Solid waste direction in Nigeria is fundamentally pigeon-holed by uneffective aggregation and disposal methods ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) . As such, Ogu ( 2000 ) observed that solid waste direction continues to stay a formidable challenge to most underdeveloped states.
The patterned advance of civilisation in developing states such as Nigeria has greatly enhanced waste coevals ; doing it even more complex to manage ( Jayarama, 2011 ) . Owing to the turning population of Nigeria, the volume of waste produced is besides increasing in metropolitan metropoliss like Port Harcourt, particularly as it is an oil bring forthing country and the geographic expedition of oil has led to an addition in motion of people from rural to urban countries ( Odiba, 2009 ) . This rapid enlargement of cardinal metropoliss in Nigeria, like Port Harcourt, has led to the decrepitude of the environment largely by domestic waste ( Onyinlola, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to UNEP ( 2009 ) population growing and industrialisation has resulted in rapid addition in the types and volume of solid waste generated in this. Research shows that resettlement of the people from rural to urban countries does non merely increase the gross of the state, but besides increases the entire volume of municipal solid waste generated in such countries. ( Adedokun, 2009 ) .
Municipal solid waste disposal methods are an facet that raises serious concern in a 3rd universe state such as Nigeria. The common methods of solid waste disposal in some states particularly Nigeria is by landfill, unfastened dumping on the streets, and by firing the waste in backyards or in an unfastened infinite. Unfortunately, approximately 65 % of family wastes are dumped directly into rivers or watercourses in Nigeria ( Rakshit 2009 ) . The usage of garbage dumps and landfills as waste disposal systems is yet another common agency of waste disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This leads to really negative environmental impacts such as the emanation of methane gas which contributes basically to planetary heating and besides reduces the sum of land available for development ( Olowomeye 2010 ) . Dumping of waste in landfills besides leads to anchor H2O taint of the full environing countries. Okosun ( 2011 ) besides observed that uncontrolled dumping of wastes by waysides consequences in assorted wellness jeopardies and reduces the aesthetic quality of the environment. Through research shows that the jobs associated with waste disposal can be traced back to the fourteenth century when the littering of nutrient waste and other solid wastes in the town led to the eruption of diseases that caused the decease of half of the Europeans at the clip ( Bortoleto 2011 ) .
Over the old ages, research has continually shown that the chief ground for solid waste jobs in urban countries of developing states is due to high population growing rates and the prevailing poorness ( Affun 2009 ) . The economic and societal growing of a state or metropolis ever consequences in increased production and fabrication activities. This, in bend, leads to activities that are synonymous with human being such as production, fabrication, waste coevals and disposal. As a direct consequence of the procedures of fabrication and disposal of consumables, there is a important addition of the rate of pollution. This depletes valuable natural resources and besides releases toxic energy which pollutes the environment, doing sustainable development impossible to accomplish.
Sustainability as a word has ever been used in our mundane slang. Harmonizing to Hideroni ( 2006 ) it is defined in a position of natural environmental protection, population growing and economic spread between developed and developing states. Sustainable development entails an environmentally comprehensive, cost effectual and socially suited direction of solid waste ( Roberts, 2003 ) . Sustainable development is a theory that has to be integrated into the mundane lives of the public if we want to accomplish a better quality of life for our unborn kids ( Dernbach, 2002 ) . In the recordings of the International Council for Local Initiatives ( ICLI ) , sustainable development is such that provides environmental, societal and economic comfortss to all citizens of the society without interrupting the capableness of the natural built societal systems upon which the bringing of these services depend on. The chief purpose of sustainable development is to renew the severely damaged environment and guarantee that coevalss unborn do non confront the inauspicious effects of our disregard on the environment. Therefore, solid waste direction with sustainable development in head encourages states to bring forth less waste, re-use most consumables, recycle and seek their extreme best to retrieve and recycle all the waste produced, thereby guaranting that the hereafter coevals are non affected by the impacts of the current coevals ( Mbata 2010 ) . Sustainable development is a construct that needs to be taken into attending for effectual waste direction. With respects to this, states all over the universe including Nigeria, are endeavoring to accomplishing sustainability ( Hasheela, 2009 ) . Therefore, all necessary stairss and safeguards should be taken to accomplish this end
Having a population of over 165million people and an one-year growing rate of 5.6 % , Nigeria is considered the largest state in Africa. Growth rate of urban countries in Nigeria has increased from 25 % in 1975 to 46 % in 1995 ( George,2010 ) Estimates by the World Bank indicate that by the twelvemonth 2005, more than 65 % of Nigerians would hold migrated to urban countries such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Delta, Calabar and Abuja ( Alkali, 2005 ) . The cause for this resettlement is basically due to oil geographic expedition activities of oil companies in these countries. As a consequence of this, the wastes generated from these countries have been on the addition and its disposal and effectual direction is a immense challenge to the authorities and municipalities involved. It can be observed that the major job associated with solid waste direction comes approximately due to the big tonss of garbage dumped illicitly by the route sides and market topographic points ( Odiba 2003 ) . As horrid as it sounds, it is still common practise in Nigeria to dump waste illicitly without thought of the impact of such patterns on our environment. Waste direction jobs in Nigerian metropoliss harmonizing to ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) are typically associated with deficiency of concern and engagement from the general populace. He farther stated that most of the waste policies are made without seting the populace, who are the chief waste generators, into thought.
The mode, in which waste is controlled in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ( the survey country ) is a large menace to the environment and can do wellness jeopardies ( Hasheela2009 ) . A overplus of wellness jeopardies such as malaria fever, typhoid febrility, diarrhea, cholera and even skin diseases have been shown to be the effects of hapless waste direction in any environment ( Guobadia 2011 ) . It is gratuitous to state that uneffective waste direction is a large danger to the end of sustainable development and if no positive progresss are made in the country of pull offing waste, there will be ruinous, long term environmental impacts on the people now and coevalss unborn.
The chief purpose of this undertaking is to analyze and detect the assorted ways how the Reuse and Recycling of Municipal Solid Wastes can take to sustainable development and gross coevals.
To set up, through comprehensive analysis and statistical analysis that waste Reuse and recycling the most suited method of Municipal Solid Waste Management in a underdeveloped state such as Nigeria and can finally take to Sustainable development.
To measure the assorted already bing techniques/methods of Municipal Solid waste aggregation and disposal in Port Harcourt metropolis and Nigeria as a whole.
To find, based on an Environmental Risk Assessment, the most important waste related hazard presently in the instance analyze country ( Port Harcourt )
To measure the present degree of awareness shown by the populace and the current attempts of the authorities in making more consciousness and supplying environmental instruction to members of the populace on efficient, environmental friendly methods of waste disposal such as Reuse and recycling.
To research the barriers that prevents the reusing and recycling of the major constituents of Municipal solid waste such as paper waste, fictile waste.
To cover with Solid waste reuse and recycling as of import facets of national economic system and environmental as a agency of sustainable development and gross coevals.
This survey is concerned with accomplishing sustainable development and possible gross coevals through Reuse and Recycling as a method of Municipal Solid Waste Management. It will seek to reply the followers:
Why is at that place a demand to recycle and recycle municipal solid waste?
In what ways can Recycle and recycling of municipal solid waste lead to the accomplishment of sustainable development?
Can Revenue coevals be guaranteed through the uninterrupted usage of reuse and recycling as the nucleus method of municipal solid waste direction?
Sustainable development is the ultimate end of every society and should be pursued with all diligence. This research highlights the significance of municipal solid waste ( such as paper glass and plastics ) as utile resources through reuse and recycling towards Sustainable development and gross coevals for Port Harcourt metropolis and Nigeria as a state.
This undertaking work was limited to merely the procedures of reuse and recycling of municipal solid waste as a agency to sustainable development in Port Harcourt metropolis. Merely reclaimable waste such as plastics, paper and glass were used as a instance survey because they are the major waste stuffs found in municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt. However, all other procedures of municipal waste direction such as composing, aggregation, transit and disposal were besides looked to during the class of this research.
Chapter 1 gives an debut to the research, covers the background of the survey, discusses its purposes and aims, and besides proposes relevant research inquiries.
Chapter 2 inside informations the literature reappraisal of municipal waste direction, positions reuse and recycling as a agency for sustainable development and gross coevals, and besides the contemporary state of affairs of waste direction in Nigeria
Chapter 3 shows the methodological analysis employed for accomplishing the set purposes and aims of the survey.
Chapter 4 discusses the consequences and draws decisions from the information generated.
Chapter 5 eventually discusses the drumhead findings, shows the research worker ‘s decisions and his suggested recommendations for the best manner frontward.
vitamin D recommendations for the best manner frontward.
Waste is a direct effect of human being and activity. It can be said to be wholly ineluctable. Different definitions of waste abound. It is, nevertheless, of import to province that the term ‘waste ‘ is really subjective. This is because, what one individual may see as waste can be viewed as an object of high value by another individual. ( Ajomo, 2010 ) . A really rigorous legal definition of waste to follow with the jurisprudence is hence necessary ; as such steadfast definitions of waste have legal, fiscal and societal deductions for the authorities, local governments, concerns, and the general populace ( Williams 2005 ) . In common idiom, waste can be defined as any merchandise or stuff that is unwanted. Wright ( 1990 ) describes waste as anything that has lost its public-service corporation value in the sight of the original proprietor and everyone else in general. However, the European Council framework Directive ( waste Framework Directive 75/442/EEC 1975 ) offers a legal definition of waste. It defines waste as
“ aˆ¦aˆ¦any stuff where the holder has an purpose to fling the stuff as no longer portion of the normal commercial rhythm of the concatenation of public-service corporation ”
This is the universally recognized definition of waste. Different states may hold somewhat different divergences of this definition based on their Torahs, civilization and prevailing times, fortunes and patterns. Harmonizing to the Federal Environmental Protection Agency ( FEPA ) , under the protections of Provision Decree 42 of 1988, waste is said to be “ substances or objects which are disposed of, or are intended to be disposed of, or are required to be disposed of by the commissariats of the jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Nigeria ( Omobolaji, 2010 )
There are different types of wastes that can be found all around us. Different states define/classify waste harmonizing to the province in which the waste is formed i.e. solid, gas or liquid or the manner the waste is generated. Based on this, waste can be classified Industrial waste, family wastes, medical waste, building waste, commercial wastes, radioactive wastes, etc. However, in general footings, all these types of wastes can be classed into two chief sorts, viz. Controlled and Uncontrolled wastes:
Controlled wastes, harmonizing to the commissariats of the Control of Pollution Act! 974 ( COPA ) are said to be chiefly Household waste commercial/ industrial wastes. It is a UK term covering waste topic to a responsibility of attention under the Environmental Protection Act of 1990.
Industrial Wastes: these are wastes that are generated as a direct consequence of industrial patterns. They include waste thermoplastics, waste wood film editings and fixingss etc. However, they do non include fictile medical waste, waste steel film editings and waste paper ( Environmental Law Library 2010 ) .
Commercial Wastes: They are the assorted waste stuffs gotten from trade and concern edifices and activities.
Family Wastes: Are those waste merchandises generated from activities inside a residential house. Examples of this sort of wastes are garden waste, paper and composition board, glass, nutrient leftovers, wood etc.
Non controlled wastes are classified as those waste merchandises that are non under the direct control and legal power of the appropriate local authorization. These sorts of wastes include wastes that are as a direct consequence of excavation and quarrying activities, and agricultural wastes and besides, radioactive wastes ( Wright, 2003 )
Agricultural Wastes: These wastes are chiefly the types that arise from agricultural activities such as farm animal litter. They besides include waste pesticides asbestos roofing stuff and besides waste oil coming from machinery, chemicals with risky belongingss etc.
Radioactive Wastes: these refer to blow that contain radioactive stuffs. They normally originate from atomic power workss, or industries that emit radioactive substances or compounds during the class of their operations ( Barnstein,2009 )
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Figure 2.2.1 Categorizations of Wastes ( Source: EAUC, 2009 )
Municipal solid waste ( MSWs ) refers to all the solid waste generated within a given municipality. They are chiefly organic and inorganic in nature and are produced in residential places, office composite, stores, infirmaries etc. Although everybody in the society has the responsibility to dispose of garbage in a nice mode, municipal solid waste is normally the duty of the local authorities governments ( Okogbue, 2001 ) . Municipal solid waste is those wastes collected by metropol5ises independent of the chief beginning of waste ( Bernstein, 2009 ) . Such wastes include family wastes ; waste produced by concern edifices and little vicinity shops. They do non, nevertheless, include waste from industrial patterns or agricultural solid waste ( Filemon, 2008 )
In the words of Robert Klein ( 2002 ) municipal solid waste refers to the gathering, transportation, intervention, recycling, and disposal of solid waste in urban countries. The end of municipal solid waste direction are targeted at advancing the quality of the urban environment, bring forth employment and income, and protecting environmental wellness ( Ogwueleka, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Kit Strangen ( 2002 ) , municipal solid waste may consist of some, if non all of the undermentioned points:
Street garbage/litter or sweepings.
Household waste ( normally generated from recycling and composting waste deposited by house occupants at waste disposal sites ) .
Hazardous waste ( in little measures gotten from families )
Garden/green waste and
Bulky solid waste besides generated from families.
Municipal Solid Waste direction can be said to embrace all the activities that has to make with managing all the waste generated within a municipality, from the point of beginning, to the concluding point of disposal. In the words of McGraw ( 1993 ) , “ municipal solid waste direction is the subject attender with the control of the coevals, storage, aggregation, transportation, processing and control of disposal of solid waste in a mode that is in agreement with the best rules of public wellness, economic sciences, technology, preservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations and that is besides antiphonal to public attitudes ” Bloomberg ( 1989 ) described solid waste direction as “ the subject that trades with the control of coevals, storage, aggregation, transportation, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a mode that is in understanding with the best rules of public wellness, economic sciences, saving, aesthetics and other environmental concerns and that is besides antiphonal to public outlooks and mentalities ” . The United Nations ( 1997 ) defines solid waste direction as the full procedure of control and supervising of solid wastes from its point of coevals to its end point of disposal.
Solid waste direction has been said to mention to all activities associating to the control, mixture, resettlement, intervention and handling of solid waste in understanding with the best values of public life and other environmental considerations ( Shan, 2000 ) . Therefore, operative rules of waste direction comprises of waste bar, decrease, recycling, intervention and disposal in the environment ( Shan, 2000 ) . Failure to efficaciously pull off waste in the environment leads to rapid debasement and it poses long term jobs to everyone.
Research has shown that, in order to successfully pull off waste and understate the detrimental effects it has on the environment, some schemes should be adopted and implemented:
Waste Recovery ( waste recycling, re-use and intervention )
Prevention of waste coevals
Environmentally friendly Waste disposal.
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Figure 2.4: Waste Management Hierarchy ( Source: Liennmann, 2009 )
These schemes are aimed at cut downing the overall sum of waste produced by promoting proper direction of waste. It besides aims at retrieving every bit much value as possible from all the waste generated. As shown on figure 2.4, waste bar should ideally be the first attack to blow direction before other options are considered ( Klein, 2000 ) . Effective execution of this waste direction hierarchy will take to a decrease in the volume of the concluding waste disposed ( Hasheela 2009 ) . Magali and Bodart ( 2010 ) suggested that for sustainable development to be achieved, waste direction activities should be dedicated towards waste decrease, which is at the top of the hierarchy, utilizing the really feasibly best environmental picks. Therefore the chief purpose of the waste direction hierarchy is the decrease of waste at beginning. Waste recovery and reuse should be the secondary purpose as they involve other procedures such as recycling, composting, and recovery of energy.
However, recent surveies have shown that the waste direction hierarchy scheme is non the most effectual. This is because it is non based on any scientific principle.it can non specifically take the best system for a metropolis or state to follow. For illustration, the waste direction scheme can non compare composting and incineration ; or recycling and landfilling in footings of their environmental impacts and cost ( Letcher, 2004 ) . This goes to demo that the waste hierarchy should be followed flexibly as a usher instead than stiffly in order to accomplish a stable environmental, economic and societal solution ( Raven, 2011 )
Aside from the above mentioned restraint, implementing this scheme in a underdeveloped state such as Nigeria will be hard. This is because of the prevailing norms of illegal garbage disposal all across the state. It will therefore entail equal environmental awareness/education for the populace. More so, rigorous environmental Torahs and ordinances should be implemented by all concerned.
Waste bar remains the best signifier of waste direction because it is the most effectual manner of cut downing the sum of waste that is generated. It is besides the most environmental friendly means has it has perfectly no consequence on the environment. It reduces pollution, saves electricity and saves far more energy than all other agencies of waste bar ( Vallero, 2004 ) .
Finkbeiner ( 2003 ) stated that the figure one precedence in waste direction should be waste bar as it is the best manner to halt the accretion of waste and a decrease of loss of resources. This procedure should be started at the beginning of production.
The primary attack of waste bar and decrease is for the makers to redesign and box their merchandises with the lowest toxicity and least volume of stuff. Industrialist and families can besides cut down their waste by selective purchasing and recycle of some merchandises and stuffs ( Angell, 1995 ) . It can be said that waste decrease depends chiefly on the consumers and the picks they make. As such production and fabrication companies should follow cleaner tendencies in the production procedure. They should besides seek to encouragement the consumer ‘s pick to back up less uneconomical merchandises and services ( CEC 2001 ) . This can be achieved through the usage of clean engineering. Their ability to take sustainable merchandises that have the least negative consequence on the environment is the key to sustainable waste direction ( Spoolman, 2008 ) .
Recovery is a waste direction method whereby the biological, physical or chemical kernel of a waste merchandise is altered in order to cut down the consequence of such waste on the environment ( Cheremisinoff, 2003 ) Energy can be recovered through assorted agencies ; illustration chemical, thermic, physical and biological procedures. Some waste direction schemes for recovery of energy include:
Composting: This is an environmental friendly manner of diminishing the volume of waste produced and besides bring forthing fertiliser ( Bertoldi, 2006 ) . Because of the low negative impact it has on the environment, the European Union has rated this method of waste disposal really high ( DEFRA, 2006 ) . It is a microbic based aerophilic method that trades with the additions of resource efficiency and creates utile merchandises from waste stuff that could hold otherwise been discarded ( USEPA 2011 ) . The procedure of composting is peculiarly favoured for usage in the tropical and hot clime states. This is because of the high rate of biodegradation in those parts as a consequence of the clime. Harmonizing to Tyler and Scott ( 1999 ) about 70 % of the waste watercourses in developing states are compostable. The general process of composting is such that the organic ratios of municipal solid wastes is isolated from the inorganic parts and so laid bare to composting, this can be done in a mechanised manner utilizing machines and tools to manage the wastes and modulate the composting conditions. Composting can besides be semi mechanized in which instance the composting procedure is allowed to happen of course and less machinery is used. Composting besides removes the organic affair in the waste watercourse thereby bettering the recycling and incineration procedures. Nevertheless, a figure of nursery gases such as methane, C dioxide etc. are released into the ambiance during this procedure, among other things, hence it is obvious that composting has its negative environmental impacts.
Incineration is another method of cut downing municipal solid waste. It basically entails the burning of waste stuffs with the usage of an incinerator under temperatures of over 1000 Degree Celsius ( Environmental Protection Department, 2005 ) . During the incineration procedure, solid waste is sorted out on the footing of their combustibleness. Thereafter, the combustible stuffs among the waste are thrown into the incinerator and burnt. Incineration of waste is a extremely effectual method of cut downing waste as surveies have shown that it reduces the sum of waste dumped in landfills by up to 80 % volume and weight ( Roberts, 1978 ) . However, this method is quite capital intensifier and besides requires high care cost and proficient expertness. This is why it is merely popular among developed states and states such as Nigeria do non readily pattern it ( World Bank, 2002 ) .
Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process that takes topographic point when there is an build-up of wet organic affair, in the deficiency of dissolved O. Through the action of anaerobiotic micro-organisms, organic affair is converted to H2O, methane and new cells. These are so collected and used as gaseous fuel while the dirt settlings are used as dirt conditioner. Anaerobic soaking up besides aids procedures of landfilling by extinguishing gluey organic waste stuffs that are responsible for gaseous and liquid radiations. It is usually carried out in close armored combat vehicles that allow for the aggregation of big parts of biogas produced ( Keller, 2007 )
Surveies indicate that this procedure of waste direction reduces the entire volume and weight of waste generated by over 25 % ( Jason, 2009 ) . It is cardinal to make renewable energy from biodegradable waste, instead than lending to climate alteration through the release of methane gas that occurs during landfilling and incineration ( Marek, 2007 ) Harmonizing to EA ( 2001 ) , methane gas is 20mtimes more potent than CO2 as a nursery gas. The residue gathered from anaerobiotic soaking up comes in both liquid and solid signifier. This residue is known as digestate and is used to condition the dirt and besides as a fertiliser. This byproduct is used widely on farms in states like Germany, Sweden, and Austria. ( Hardtle,2007 ) propounds that approximately 0.46 % of electricity needed in the UK can be generated through the anaerobiotic digestion of nutrient waste. Unfortunately, the use of anaerobiotic soaking up in developing states like Nigeria is really limited due to miss of expertness, engineering and the relevant substructure.
Landfilling: For landfilling, the solid waste is dumped and spread over the land and is left for its transmutation to humus. This is attained by the biodegradation of the waste affair. Landfilling is the concluding measure in the disposal of waste that can non be treated or recycled, together with other residues from waste that can non be collected, separated or handled in any other manner ( Nemerow,2007 ) There are three types of landfill carried out in Africa today, viz. unfastened or shit landfill, semi controlled or operated landfill and healthful landfill. Open /dump landfill is the most rough signifier of landfilling and that is the 1 still being practiced in most underdeveloped states including Nigeria. A healthful landfill is a solid waste direction method that is aimed and operated in a mode that protects the environment and public wellness. ( Nemerow, 2007 )
There are some factors necessary for the constitution of a healthful landfill site. These factors include:
Planing and casing the waste spread site, with waste and dirt placed in tight beds.
Measuring the technology, geological and hydrological characteristics of the site and besides the environmental impact analysis, tipping program and site Restoration program.
The usage of line drives to suppress the infiltration of leachate into the dirt to let for full or restricted hydrogeological isolation to take topographic point
The disadvantages of the landfilling procedure are besides worthy of reference. Leaching of unsafe substances and foods are likely to happen, if landfilling is non practiced with proper environmental protection ( Bilitewski and Hardtle, 2004 ) . Contamination of groundwater can besides happen in countries around landfill sites and this is a hapless waste direction attack. Landfilling should at best, be considered a impermanent solution to the waste job as it tends to go a large environmental pollutant as clip goes by ( Rosenfeld, 2008 ) . This is so because once the lifetime of the barrier comes to an terminal, landfill leachates leak out and pollute the land H2O all around that country ( Lee, 2004 ) . In order to prevent such happenings, appropriate statute law have to implemented and even enforced to guarantee that proper landfill and design are carried out ( Mannan and Jones 1997 ) . The European Union has laid down rigorous demands for landfills in order to debar and cut down the negative influences on the environment, specifically on surface and land H2O, dirt, air, and human wellness ( Jasiski, 2010 )
Figure 2.4.2 Landfill site in Port Harcourt ( beginning: Obijiofor, 2009 )
Aside from the above mentioned 1s, other waste direction rules have been established as feasible schemes for work outing Municipal Solid Waste Management issues. Rushkin ( 2009 ) gives some of them as:
Making Awareness: This involves the usage of mass media, consciousness runs and every other agencies of sensitising the populace on the effects of foolhardy waste disposal and the environmental benefits of good waste direction.
User Pays Principle: This rule requires that the users of the resources bear the fiscal cost of those who provide waste direction services for their endeavor. This discourages uneconomical consumerism.
Polluter Pays Principle: This entails the manufacturers of waste to pay straight for the harm caused by their waste. This rule was foremost propounded in 1972 at the behest of the OECD council on Steering Principles refering International Economic Aspects of Environmental Policies. Harmonizing to Trevor ( 2010 ) the rule that is used for assigning costs of pollution arrest and control to guarantee the rational usage of environmental resources is the alleged Polluter-pays-principle
Product Stewardship Principle: It requires the makers or importers of waste to take duty of the environmental impacts of their merchandises.
The challenges of solid waste direction in metropoliss of developing states like Nigeria are rather different from those in developed western states. Besides, the composing of waste generated is besides dissimilar from state to state depending on the rate of development of that peculiar state, civilization and rate of development. Depending on the societal category and business of the dwellers of a peculiar country, the sort of waste they produce greatly varies. Solid waste coevals of 3rd universe states is 0.6 to 0.8kg/person/day, compared to 1.0 to 1.6 kg/person/day in industrialised states ( Zerbock 2003 ) . Ogwueleka ( 2009 ) acknowledge that developing states like Nigeria have dissimilar solid waste direction jobs from first universe states. These differences can easy be noticed in in countries of density/volume, constellation, and economic model, sum of waste generated, entree to waste for aggregation, consciousness of proper waste disposal methods and attitude of the citizens. ) . A survey by Ajao and Anurigwo ( 2001 ) estimated that 168,201 metric tons of solid waste were produced per twelvemonth in Port Harcourt which is the primary country of survey in this. It is, nevertheless, of import to observe that family waste make up for over 60 % of municipal solid waste, in the United Kingdom with kitchen waste being the biggest ( DEFRA 2006 ) . Past research and surveies indicate that this can be said to be the same for the metropolis of Port Harcourt. Harmonizing to Mba ( 2004 ) , waste composing in Port Harcourt is fundamentally made up of:
Garbage: This constitutes near to 70 % of all waste generated in Port Harcourt municipality. Its beginning is chiefly the families and concern offices in the metropolis and it is chiefly biodegradable. Other waste merchandises generated therein include paper, carton/cardboard, plastics, cloth film editings, bottles, ceramics, Sn tins etc.
Waste derived from little graduated table activities such as street sweeping, demolition/rubble waste, ashes etc. It besides includes points such as derelict vehicles, carts and bikes littering the streets. However these represent a small per centum of the waste generated. These points constitute a major waste disposal job in the municipality.
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Figure 2.5 Compositions of Household Wastes in the UK ( Source: DEFRA, 2006 )
Nigeria as a state is blessed with abundant homo and natural resources. However the advancement and development of this great state has been hindered by hapless municipal solid waste direction methods ( Adedoyin, 2006 ) . Although Port Harcourt ranks as one of the most urbanised metropoliss in Nigeria, it is besides one of the dirtiest ( Alabor, 2007 ) . Driving or walking through the metropolis, the awful image of cluttered waste is glowering. These waste merchandises are merely dumped on major main roads and roads representing an eyesore. The crying dumping of solid waste in Port Harcourt and its attendant impact on the environment presently is non apt for healthy life ( Eloho,2006 ) .
The job of municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt can be traced back to over a decennary ago when waste direction was the exclusive duty of the local authorities ( Mba, 2004 ) . An accretion of garbage builds up in a affair of hours and sometimes obstructs traffic. The occupants of Port Harcourt were non adequately serviced by the Local Government Authorities in the facet of waste aggregation and disposal. There were no public waste bins, no designated shit sites etc. so the public recklessly dumps their family waste on the route. Improper waste disposal methods such as unfastened combustion, dumping garbage along the route or in unfastened Fieldss, in the watercourse or rivers and in landfills were the order of the twenty-four hours ( Olowomeye,2001 ) . This led to immense environmental pollution. To this twenty-four hours, a immense garbage job still exists in Port Harcourt. Municipal solid waste generated in the metropolis is mostly dumped randomly. These illicitly dumped wastes constitute a job for human wellness and the debasement of the environment ( William, 2005 ) . Previous surveies show that the chief composing of municipal solid waste in Port Harcourt is chiefly fictile, paper, organic nutrient waste, metal, fabric, aluminum and glass ( Igoni et al, 2007 ) . These waste stuffs form the majority of the garbage that are discarded randomly in the metropolis.
The authorities provides garbage bins at designated musca volitanss on the route and streets yet people merely disregard these and dump their wastes randomly, most times where of all time that proves most convenient for them ( Adedokun, 1992 ) . This waste contaminates ground H2O, serves as a genteelness land for rats, flies and other plagues, and finally leads to the spread of diseases. Besides, indiscriminate waste disposal in the metropolis leads to the decrease of available land and the strong emanation of methane gas contribute to planetary heating and exhaustion of the Earth ‘s natural resources ( Williams, 2005 ) .
The obvious grounds behind the actions of the people of Port Harcourt include: High degree of illiteracy, deficiency of consciousness about proper disposal methods and reluctance to collaborate on the issue of waste disposal ( Nabegu, 2010 ) . The authorities besides set up bureaus and ministries responsible for municipal waste direction in the province. These bureaus receive fiscal and proficient support from the province environmental budget to efficaciously transport out their responsibilities ( Okot-Uma,2000 )
Harmonizing to Obijiofor, 2009 the Government bureaus officially in charge of solid waste direction in Port Harcourt are:
The State Ministry of Environment and Water Resources
Local Government councils and wards ( Environmental Department ) .
Rivers State Environmental Authority ( RSESA ) : This bureau is the chief administration in charge of municipal solid waste aggregation, transportation and disposal. They are besides responsible for the enrollment and licensing of private garbage aggregators in the metropolis, keeping landfill sites and implementing all laid down ordinances refering garbage aggregation, disposal and sanitation all across the metropolis ( Ekosse,2000 )
The Federal Government of Nigeria created the Decree 58 and established the Federal Environmental Protection bureau. Their authorization was to manage the aggregation and disposal of garbage in Nigerian metropoliss, procure the environment for wellness and wellbeing and therefore advance sustainable development in the state ( Ogu, 2000 ) . The Federal Government besides initiated the Environmental Sanitation exercising that is carried out one time a month throughout the state. The purpose of such an exercising was chiefly to instill a sense of environmental consciousness into the heads of the public ( Obefe, 1993 ) . All of these steps, nevertheless, have non helped to accomplish the chief purposes for which they were instituted. This is because of the inability of these established bureaus to dispatch their responsibilities efficaciously. The province bureaus in charge of municipal waste direction, most times, do non hold adequate authorities support and support to be every bit efficient as the private waste direction companies in the disposal of waste ( Christain, 2011 ) . This consequence in exorbitant fees charged by the private companies for remotion of waste and as such merely high income earners can afford their services. The remainder of the public in that country that suffer disregard from the province environmental bureau now resorts to dumping their garbage in the unfastened, rivers, brooks, empty secret plans of land and even in drains. This causes deluging most times and the waste dumped in drains may be carried off by run-off H2O into larger organic structures of H2O like seas or lakes and fouling them, therefore, impacting the ecosystem ( Ankidawa, 2007 )
It is of import to observe that ignorance plays a major portion in the activities of these perpetrators of indiscriminate waste disposal ( Adeh, 2010 ) . A profound deficiency of cognition about waste direction methods can be observed among the dwellers of some parts of Port Harcourt. They are merely non cognizant of the environmental and wellness dangers of bad waste disposal. This is particularly among the middle/low category vicinity whose residents can non afford the services of private waste direction companies. They are so left at the clemency of province run Environmental Protection Agency which is severely funded and badly motivated as it does non have the authorities attending it good deserves ( Igwe, 2000 ) . Solid waste generated in these countries are normally burned outside in the unfastened by the occupants or dumped by the waysides in big tonss as there is no formal waste collection/disposal system put in topographic point by the authorities ( Iheanacho, 2009 )
Figure 2.6.1 Waste dumped randomly on a street in Port Harcourt ( Source: Writer ‘s exposure )
The informal/local recycling sector in Port Harcourt metropolis besides enjoys really small support from the Government or even the private sector, but they have been able to accomplish some success in recycling municipal solid waste. The general disposal methods are through the scavengers. These are chiefly males between the ages of 14 to 35 with no formal instruction or preparation and as such do non hold any opportunity of white collar employment ( Ogbonna, 2002 ) . They rummage through the waste pile, pick up reclaimable and reclaimable waste and sell them to makers who recycle the waste into proper goods. This is a signifier of employment for most people that do non hold any agencies of support ( Obijiofor et al 2009 ) . The reclaimable stuffs like plastics, glass, metal and fabrics in this tremendous pile of garbage so pull the attending of these local scavengers. They sort out garbage at the shit sites and so taken to be reused and or recycled. There are another group involved in the aggregation and transit of garbage from these countries. They are the local cart thrusters. They collect and transport these reclaimable stuffs from the houses and countries generated and sell it to the industries as natural stuff that can be used for recycling. The cart thrusters, nevertheless, charge a disposal fee from the houses that generate this waste. They make about $ 25 per twenty-four hours ( Ayobolu, 2005 ) .The waste stuffs collected are typically washed and dried out before they are sold to decline traders either at disposal sites or at debris shops ( Onibokun, 1999 ) ) . In other bigger metropoliss, like Lagos, this is a really moneymaking concern because of the copiousness of garbage mopess all across the metropolis. The aggregation and transit of the reclaimable waste is really labour intensifier and it is projected that this histories for 65 % to 70 % of the entire cost waste direction in the state ( Oluwande, 2008 ) . The major scavenging and recycling done in Nigeria is informal and they are derived from assorted waste. The reclaimable content of solid waste all across the metropolis is said to be approximately 58 % and it is comprised of organic affair which makes it debatable to incinerate. For illustration, glass is processed and recycled locally to give cullet which can be used for the production of other things such as disks, tumblers etc. while whole glass bottles are exhaustively washed and cleaned, the reused for re-storing locally made drinks, medical specialties etc ( Imman et al,2008 ) .
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Figure 2.6.2 Informal recycling sectors ( Beginning: Wilson et Al. 2010 )
The activities of these scavengers have besides, in a manner, hindered development and gross coevals through the recycling of waste as they end up dumping the waste randomly excessively. Irrespective of all that, the same solid waste job still persists. This is made more so because even after the scavengers have recovered the reclaimable waste stuffs they need, they end up disposing the residuary waste randomly. However if decently managed, the immense sums of waste can be transformed into commercial, industrial, and family goods thereby bring forthing gross for the authorities and employment for people in that sector. ( Ekwezor, 2010 ) .
Previous environmental incidents that have occurred highlighted the demand for the passage, development and alteration of environmental protection laws/legislation on waste disposal all over the universe ( Odibo, 2009 ) . The leaking of PCBs into rice Fieldss in Osaka, Japan in 1968 ; the methane gas detonation in the USA in 1969 and the nitrile dumping episode in Coventry, Warwickshire, UK in 1972 are some of the incidents that have raised planetary concern on the demand to hold standing Torahs and ordinances steering the issues of waste direction among all states of the universe ( Mckenzie, 2008 ) . This prompted the UK waste direction bureau to take necessary actions to modulate municipal solid waste disposal in order to prevent future happening ( Williams, 2005 ) . Before these incidents, really small concern was shown towards establishing ordinances for solid waste disposal methods such as landfills and as such, it had a annihilating consequence on the environment ( Sarsby, 2000 ) .
However, at a peculiar clip, a steady flow of directives from the European Union was issued with the aim of educating and organizing waste direction schemes and policies throughout Europe ( DOE, 2005 ) . The declaration of waste regulations/legislation was to efficaciously pull off waste and environmental resources available. Surveies indicated that a batch of states including the UK established ordinances which made it compulsory that non-hazardous waste sites be converted into healthful landfills in order to halt the flight of leachate from the landfill sites into the environing evidences or H2O organic structures ( Bagchi, 2004 ) . Furthermore, incidents of waste disposal like the nitrile dumping in Coventry and the detonation in the US caused so much public call.
In 1972 the United Kingdom joined the EU community and later implemented the Control of Pollution Act of 1974. This was the first legislative act that structured the disposal of waste to land and the discharge of wastewater to sewer and H2O classs ( Hawkins and Shaw, 2010 ) . After being a signer to the EC, the first legislative act modulating the disposal of waste to land and the discharge of wastewaters into waterways and sewerages was adopted by the UK. ( Hawkins and Shaw, 2000 ) . That act is known as The Control of Pollution Act 1974 ( COPA 1974 ) . The ultimate aim is to protect and better the value of the environment ( Odibo, 2009 ) The ECAs a direct consequence of the Control of Pollution Act of 1974, the European 75/442 Waste Framework Directive was created. As amended by the 91/156 Directive, it states that ‘Disposal includes the aggregation, classification, passenger car, intervention and stowage of waste pending tipping above land or incineration ‘ . To efficaciously implement the 75/442 Directive, the UK established some other statute law in subsequent old ages and it led to the debut of the Environmental Protection Act of 1990 ( EPA 1990 ) . This Environmental Protection Act of 1990 contained a scope of subjects for the protection of the environment and Part II of the EPA Act replaced and reinforced the waste disposal Framework in COPA 1974. The Waste Framework Directive besides makes it compulsory for all animal trainers of waste ; including those involved in storing, transit, intervention, and disposal to keep a waste direction licence. This license must be issued out by the Environmental Agency entirely, unless they are excluded by a higher authorization. The Environmental bureau hence has the duty of publishing out licenses, supervising for conformity among license holders. The creative activity of the Environmental Protection Act of1990 was brought approximately by the debut of new statute law for the effectual execution of the waste Framework Directive by the UK. This Act included a choice of subjects for the protection of the environment and portion 2 of the Act supplanted and efficaciously reinforced the waste disposal model in COPA 1974 ( Odibo, 2009 )
In add-on, the United Kingdom adopted statute law within the European Union that regulates waste direction. This peculiar legislative act is the statute law on waste intervention operations. To expeditiously implement the ordinances on waste intervention operations, the EC divided its operations into three Directives viz. :
The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive 1996 ( 96/61/EC ) : This policy was developed in the UK in order to advance development by promoting environmentally friendly economic activities. The Directing purposes at efficaciously forestalling waste through ‘clean ‘ and improved engineering. It was further developed into the construct of a ‘waste direction hierarchy ‘ which structures the full procedure of waste direction from bar, reuse and recycling to optimization of the concluding disposal method ( DoE, 1995 )
The Landfill Directive ( 1999/31/EC ) : The Landfill Directive came into being throughout the European Union on the 16th of July, 1999 with the purpose of complementing controls on landfill sites all across the EU. Its chief aim is to cut down pollutants like methane gas emitted in landfill sites and besides emphasizes on common criterions for the design, operation and the after attention of landfill sites. This statute law was tailored to better the general criterion of landfilling across Europe. The dictates of the Landfill Directive are executed through the Landfill Regulations 2002 for England and Wales ( Bagchi, 2004 ) . It encompasses all the inside informations about the designing, type of waste most suited for a peculiar landfill, operation and post-operative attention of all the landfills in EU member provinces ( Williams, 2002 ) .
The Directive on the Incineration of Waste 2000 ( 2000/76/EC ) : This statute law regulates and proctors conformity for proper incineration of procedures of waste throughout the European Union. The purposes and aims of waste incineration directive are to restrict or forestall, every bit far as operable, the negative impacts of waste on our environment. Contamination of groundwater, dirt and even the air by emanations given off during waste incineration, are some of its chief points of focal point. The Directive besides involves the scene and care of rigorous operational conditions and proficient demands for incinerating workss throughout the EC in order to to the full protect the environment and the people populating in it. ( DEFRA, 2009 )
To guarantee that the Directives are successfully implemented in the UK, the strategic planning and readying was done by the Environmental bureaus Local authoritiess, local planning authorization and all local industries ( Williams, 2005 ) . The Local and Federal Government, Environmental Agency, Local planning governments and the general populace have besides been merged into take parting in all these waste direction rules mentioned above ( Odibo 2009 ) . The UK aimed to travel up the waste direction hierarchy procedure. In add-on, the waste direction strategy in the UK involved and encouraged public engagement. An illustration of this was the planning permission for an industrial combined heat and power site in South East London following public agitation and engagement ( ISWA 2000 ) .
To further implement these Directives and Acts, the undermentioned rules were based on it ( Dubois, Gonzalez and Knadel 2004 ) :
Principle of propinquity: This rule requires that waste be treated every bit near as possible to its point of coevals, production or aggregation.
Best Operable Environmental Option: This is a methodical option or appraisal of all available waste intervention or direction options in order to place the best 1 that will vouch maximal environmental, economic, and societal benefits ( DOE, 2005 )
Waste Management Hierarchy: This entails the bar, recovery re-use and recycling of natural stuffs from solid waste.
Polluter Pays Principle: This stipulates that defilers are financially responsible for their waste and as such, waste disposal installations must be paid for by the defilers themselves and non from the revenue enhancement remunerator ‘s financess.
Principle of Self Sufficiency: This requires that every member province of the pact is chiefly responsible for its ain generated waste and should be held accountable for it at all times.
Principle of Best Available Technology ( BAT ) : This rule requires that waste disposal installations be equipped with the best available engineering designed with the environment in head.
In add-on to these, the Waste Framework besides makes it mandatory for all those that transport, shop, dainty and dispose all waste stuffs to keep a waste direction licence that must be issued by the Environmental Agency. All these go to demo that since the 1980s, the European Union have endeavoured to achieve sustainable development through encompassing all signifiers of societal, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability ( Kit and Strange 2002 ) .
Nigeria is the most populated state on the African continent. It occupies about 14 % of the land mass in Africa, and has a population of over 166 million people. It is between Latitudes 4`N and 14`n of the Equator ; with Cameroon surrounding on the East, Niger democracy and Benin Republic flanking on the West and North severally ( Federal Ministry of Environment, 2001 ) . Nigeria has a entire length of about 850km of Atlantic Ocean boundary and a entire surface country of about 923,773 square kilometers ( Adeyinka, Bankole and Solomon, 2003 ) . Port Harcourt, which is the capital of Rivers State, is located in the southern portion of Nigeria. It is a big port town with an estimated population of 1,382,592 ( NPC, 2006 ) . Port Harcourt lies along the bonny river, 41miles ( 66km ) upstream from the Gulf of Guinea. It has a average one-year rainfall of 2280mm and an mean one-year lower limit and maximal temperatures of 24.3 grade centigrade and 35.1 grade centigrade severally. The conditions is same as the remainder of the state, tropical and its driest months commence from December to March with dirt type that consists chiefly of silt clay assorted with sand ( Ayotamuno et al, 2006 ) .
Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers province, is the Centre of Nigeria ‘s oil industry and is extremely industrialised. Owing to the find of oil in the 50 ‘s in the Niger Delta part, the country has continued to bask all the advantages of urbanisation boulder clay day of the month. It is besides the biggest base of transnational oil operations in the state. The oil roar led to a rapid inflow of migrators in hunt of occupation chances, thereby giving rise to over population ( See map of Port Harcourt below ) . However, population growing through rural to urban migration was non limited to Port Harcourt entirely as most metropoliss besides witnessed an inflow of people from the rural countries, hence an addition in the sum of municipal solid waste generated ( Odubela, 1998 ) . The lifting volume of waste produced over the old ages has led to projections and appraisals by environmental bureaus in a command to be able to expeditiously map out schemes to pull off municipal solid waste.
Table 2.8: Evaluation and estimated volume of Municipal Solid Waste in some Nigerian Cities
Beginning: Nigerian Environment and Study Action Team ( NEST ) ( 1991 ) , cited in Ogu 200
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Figure 2.8.1 Map of Nigeria demoing the 36 provinces ( beginning: Odubela, 2009 )
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Figure 2.8.2: Map of Rivers province ( Beginning: Odubela, 2009 )
In 1987, a big measure of toxic waste was dumped in a little town called Koko in Bendel province. This sparked off widespread disease, infections and decease in the country, distributing panic across the state. Consequently, the Nigerian Government propagated the Harmful Waste Decree which provided the legal model for the operational control of the coevals and disposal of all sorts waste in within Nigeria. After this in 1988, the regulative organic structure, the Federal Environmental protection bureau ( FEPA ) was established. It was bestowed with the duty of guarding and developing the Nigerian environment ( Echefu and Akpofure, 2010 ) . The legal model for environmental policies in Nigeria originates from the Nigerian Constitution. It stands as the foundation on which all the Environmental Protection Acts are based upon. The fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 in Section 20 provinces that “ the State shall at all times protect and better the environment and safeguard the H2O, air and land, wood and wildlife of Nigeria ” ( International Centre for Nigerian Law 2009 ) . Based on that, the legal charter for environmental protection in Nigeria comprises of the followers ( Atsegbua, 2004 ) :
National Policy on Environment, Act 42 of 1988: This act deems 9it a condemnable offense to import or merchandise in toxic waste in Nigeria. It was promulgated with the aim of accomplishing sustainable development ( Adeh, 1991 )
Harmful Waste Act of 1988.
National Environmental Regulations and Pollution Abatement 1991: this was enacted to cut down and supervise the coevals of industrial waste in Nigeria.
The National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria ( Regulation S.1.15 ) : This is besides for the overseeing of solid and risky waste.
Environmental Impact Assessment Act of 1992: This is to safeguard the environment and do certain that private and public sector companies or persons do non ship on or empower activities or undertakings without anterior deliberation of the impact of those activities to the environment.
The Federal Government, by the commissariats of the fundamental law, created the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act of 1988 ( FEPA Act ) . This Act led to the constitution of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency in 1992. This organic structure was given the duty of commanding the environment and besides developing policies and processs that will assist keep the environment ( Akpotaire and Folarin, 2011 ) . It operates a cardinal administrative system with central offices situated at the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and Zonal offices located in Lagos, Port Harcourt, Benin-city, Kaduna and Kano. Each zone office is charged with turn toing all the environmental jobs of the provinces within their zones. Harmonizing to subdivision 4 of Decree 58, the Federal Environmental Agency was instituted to transport out the followers:
Liaise with the Federal and State ministries, local authorities councils and research bureaus on covering with affairs associating to environmental protection.
Prepare and present programs for the development of new methods and patterns of environmental direction.
Advice the Government and sensitise the public new environmental issues and policies whenever the demand arises.
The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria ( EGASPIN ) 2002: This was issued by the Department of Petroleum Resources ( DPR ) , harmonizing to ( Aluko and Oyebode, 2006 ) , with the responsibility of transporting out regular wellness and environmental appraisals and reapp
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