According to the research of the WHO (World Health Organization), more than 50% of individuals loss their lives yearly due to road traffic injuries. More than the half of deaths are of two-wheeler riders because of head injuries. Most of these deaths can be avertible by the compulsory use of helmets. Researches have shown that wearing the helmet can prevent the fatal injuries by 75%. In addition, WHO specifies that the drunk and drive scenario increased day by day in the world which leads towards a major road accident.
Furthermore, there are some rural areas around the world where the traffic of people is less. In such a situation, rider loss their lives due to delay in providing emergency service. Many awareness drives have been launched, laws have been enforced in the public interests but still, people are violating the rules and driving very casually without wearing helmets and thereby risking their lives. Hence to overcome this problem, we came up with innovative as well as the novel project of “Smart Helmet for Auto Ignition.
The system is designed in such a way that the bike will not start until rider wear helmet and pass through the alcohol test which solve the problem of drunk driving. The additional features of this project are it consists of GPS and GSM technology which sends the message to the hospital as well as a family member with the current location at the time of an accident. Ultimately, the project is focused on safety of bikers.
Keywords: Alcohol detection, Accident detection, GPS-GSM, Rider’s Safety, Reporting system
There is an alarming increase in the morbidity and mortality due to two-wheeler road traffic accidents. Based on the various survey in India, it is estimated that in every 2 minutes, one accident takes place. Data from the National Crime Records Bureau indicates that deaths and injuries related to road traffic accident has increased two and four-fold respectively during the period of 1991-2015. Reportedly 98,254 persons were killed in 2015 on Indian roads. The riders of two-wheeler vehicles are among the majority to be affected in road traffic accidents. Two-wheeler accidents have been shown to have maximum case fatality in accidents. Even though the safety rules made by the authority, many riders avoid following it. Furthermore, riders in India often avoid the prime rule of wearing the helmet while riding bike which leads to fatal injuries to the rider in case of accidents. There needs to be a system rather than manual checking that could enforce this rule upon the riders and hence prevent them from bypassing it. One of the prime reasons that leads to accidents is “drunk and drive”. Almost 55% of the accidents in our country can be prevented if the riders stop consuming alcohol before riding.
Arduino UNO R3 and Arduino Nano both are functionally same however, the difference is in size. Arduino Nano is smaller than Arduino Uno R3. Both Arduinos are a microcontroller board based on a removable, dual-inline-package (DIP) ATmega328 AVR microcontroller. Programs can be loaded on to it through the easy-to-use Arduino software. It has 14 digital pins which provide digital output, 6 analog pins provides an analog output, 3 ground terminals, 2 power sources with 3.3V and 5.0V respectively.
An infrared sensor is an electronic device, that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detects the motion. When IR light falls on the photo-diode, the resistances and these output voltages, change in proportion to the magnitude of the IR light received.
MQ135 is used as the alcohol sensor. It is a low-cost semiconductor sensor which can detect the presence of alcohol gases at concentrations from 0.05 mg/L to 10 mg/L. Figure 3 shows Alcohol Sensor.
HC-05 is used as a Bluetooth module because it works as a master-slave. Generally, it is designed for transparent wireless serial connection setup.
HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor is used for accident detection. The sensor head emits an ultrasonic wave and receive the wave reflected from the target. It measures distance to the target by measuring the time between the emission and reception.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system used to get location in terms of latitudes and longitudes. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, with no subscription fees or setup charges.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is an international standard for mobile telephones. It sends the location information fetch using GPS to family member through SMS. Figure 7 shows A6 GSM/GPRS module.
It is an electromechanical switch used for switching purpose. Figure 8 show working of relay.
There are 4 entities in system which are rider, Helmet, Bike and relative. When rider wears helmet, IR sensor which is present in helmet module, detects head of rider and gives response. If response is positive, then alcohol test will do by alcohol sensor. If it detects alcohol below consumption limit, then it sends both responses to bike circuit through Bluetooth module. Bike circuit receives both responses and take necessary action based on that response. If both responses are fulfilling condition for ignition, then bike will be start. Also, after ignition of bike, Ultrasonic sensor which is present in bike circuit, continuously measures distance between road and bottom of bike, if specified distance crossed then it sends the current location which is getting from GPS to family member via GSM.
After implementation, the system ensures the safety of riders, by making it compulsory to wear helmet throughout ride and ensures that rider has not consumed alcohol. If any one of these prime safety rules is violate, the ignition system prevent rider to start a bike. Furthermore, accident detection
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